The diagnosis of cutaneous sparganosis is made on the basis of the characteristic clinical features and history of relevant exposure (Yamashitz et al., 1990). Definitive diagnosis is made by examination of the excised worm (see Figure 19c.8). Sparganosis may be diagnosed by CT scanning, showing a low-density lesion in the white matter with adjacent ventricular dilatation, and the lesion may enhance with contrast.

A serological diagnosis can be made by EIA for the presence of Sparganum-specific antibody in the majority of cases (Kong et al., 1994). In the case of cerebral sparganosis, CSF EIA test is almost invariably positive. The treatment of cerebral sparganosis depends on removal of the viable worm and, where this is not possible, the patient should be treated with praziquantel, although evidence of its clinical efficacy is not available.

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