Epidemiology

The majority of cases of echinostomiasis in humans occur in Asia, including Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia and Singapore (Table 24.1). In addition, there have been reports of infection from Africa, Brazil, Romania, Russia, Italy and Egypt. Ingestion of molluscs, fish, clams or amphibians is the major risk factor. While most areas surveyed have low infection

Fig. 24.3 Intestinal trematode eggs. (A) Fasciolopsis buski, average size 130-140x80-85 ^m. (B) Echinostoma malayanum, average size 120-130x80-90 ^m. (C) Metagonimus yokogawai, average size 27-28 x 16-17 ^m. (D) Gastrodiscoides spp., average size 127-160x60-75 ^m. Photographs courtesy of Professor Prayong Radomyos, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Thailand

Fig. 24.3 Intestinal trematode eggs. (A) Fasciolopsis buski, average size 130-140x80-85 ^m. (B) Echinostoma malayanum, average size 120-130x80-90 ^m. (C) Metagonimus yokogawai, average size 27-28 x 16-17 ^m. (D) Gastrodiscoides spp., average size 127-160x60-75 ^m. Photographs courtesy of Professor Prayong Radomyos, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Thailand rates of less than 1%, there are hyperendemic areas with rates of over 50% (Carney, 1991).

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