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Figure 2.14 The distribution of Glossina pallidipes in Kenya and Tanzania using (A) the minimum of the monthly NDVI (67% correct), and (B) nine additional climatological variables (79% correct predictions). Reprinted from Rogers and Randolph. Distribution of tsetse and ticks in Africa, past, present and future. Parasitology Today 9: 266-71; © 1993. with permission from Elsevier Science

Figure 8.5 (A) Sporoplasms (arrows) of Nosema sp. from the lawn-grass cutworm Spodoptera depravata emerging from polar tubes after germination of spores still within an infected Antheraea eucalypti cell (arrowhead) in vitro. Bar = 10.0 |im. From Iwano and Ishihara (1989), © Academic Press, reproduced by permission

(B) Warthin-Starry stain. Brownish-black spores of Encephalitozoon intestinalis lying individually and in groups in enterocytes and lamina propria of an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Dr A.S. Field

(C) Chromotrope stain. Spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi purified from in vitro culture. Original micrograph of Dr R. Weber

(D) Chromotrope stain. Spores of Enterocytozoon bieneusi concentrated from faeces of AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Dr R. Weber

(E) Uvitex 2B stain. Spores of Enterocytozoon bieneusi viewed by fluorescence. Original micrograph of Dr T. van Gool

(F) Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Pinkish-red aggregates of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in paraffin-embedded section of kidney of an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Dr D. Woodrow

(G) Toluidene blue stain. Multiple sporophorous vesicles containing spores of Trachipleistophora anthropophthera in a giant astrocyte. Resin section of brain tissue from an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Drs J.M. Orenstein and A.T. Yachnis.

(H) Haematoxylin and eosin stain. Partial polarization of spores of Trachipleistophora anthropophthera in a paraffin-embedded section of thyroid from an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Dr J.M. Orenstein

(I) Giemsa stain. Spores of Enterocytozoon bieneusi showing purple nuclei in a smear of a small intestinal biopsy from an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Drs W.S. Hollister and E.U. Canning

(J) Toluidene blue stain. Resin section of skeletal muscle of an AIDS patient showing massive replacement (arrows) of sarcoplasm by sporophorous vesicles containing spores of Trachipleistophora hominis. Other spores have been phagocytised by macrophages (arrowheads). From Field et al. (1996), by permission of the American Society for Microbiology

(K) Haematoxylin and eosin stain. Spores of Trachipleistophora anthropophthera replacing the sarcoplasm of myocytes (arrows). Paraffin-embedded section of heart from an AIDS patient. Original micrograph of Dr J.M. Orenstein

(L) Gross brain section showing opaque white patches representing sites of infection with Trachipleistophora anthropophthera in cerebral cortex (arrows) and thalamus (arrowhead) of an AIDS patient. From Yachnis et al. (1996), by permission of the American Journal of Clinical Pathology

Figure 3.6 Map of malaria situation globally, highlighting drag-resistant areas. (A) P. falciparum absent or sensitive to chloroquine. (B) Low risk in most areas, although chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum malaria does occur. (C) Risk high in most areas of this zone in Africa and also in parts of the Amazon basin. Relatively low elsewhere. Multi drag-resistant P. falciparum malaria occurs. Adapted from World Health Organization (1998)

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