A. A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others is present without justification, beginning by early adulthood, and is manifested by at least four of the following:
1. The patient suspects others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him.
2. The patient doubts the loyalty or trustworthiness of others.
3. The patient fears that information given to others will be used maliciously against him.
4. Benign remarks by others or benign events are interpreted as having demeaning or threatening meanings.
5. The patient persistently bears grudges.
6. The patient perceives attacks that are not apparent to others, and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
7. The patient repeatedly questions the fidelity of his spouse or sexual partner.
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