The plastic nature of immature organs such as kidney, liver, brain and lung may indicate the need for more animal toxicology. Frequently, neonatal acute and subacute toxicology studies are undertaken in two animal species. Because of the small size of both mouse and rat pups, this may prove a challenge to administer the active drug. The common 'mixing with chow' is inappropriate in neonates. Dog pups usually provide one of the two species, so a special liquid formulation for animals may be required (if the product is intended for oral delivery), and given by dropper gauage.

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