Conclusions

The oleiferous brassica species have been extensively utilized as an important source of edible oil. Oilseed brassicas stand third in world's oilseeds production and acreage, whereas in India, it ranks second next to groundnut. A considerable amount of work has been undertaken for genetic enhancement of oilseed brassicas to increase its commercial value through various conventional as well as modern approaches. Among the biotechnological techniques used, double haploids have emerged as a...

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. valentina E. Vasilyaeva for valuable advises and to Miss Elena Bragina for the help in illustrating and technical help in manuscript preparation. The research was carried out with the support of Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research, grants number 02-04-49807. 1. T.B. Batygina, A new approach to the system of flowering plants, Phytomorphology 39 (1989) 311325. 2. T.B. Batygina, Embryoidogeny is a new type of vegetative propagation, in T.B....

Introduction About Herbal Biotechnology

Medicinal plants have been the subject of man's curiosity and purpose since time immemorial. The importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of chronic diseases needs no elaboration. In fact, even with the tremendous advancement in the field of synthetic chemistry, almost 50 of the commercial drugs available in the market remain of plant origin. The herbal system was, however, pushed to the background with the advent of allopathic system. It is now back with a venegence and the age-old...

Role of Polyamines in Biological Processes

Most of the PA functions can be attributed to their polycationic nature and the distribution of the charge along the molecule, which allows them to bind to a variety of molecules, including nucleic acids, protein and cell membranes in the cell and regulate their functions. A very crucial binding of PAs is with membrane phospholipids thus stabilizing them and reducing chlorophyll loss when bound to the thylakoid membrane 29, 33 , as well as preventing the lowering of membrane potential and the...

Embryo and Endosperm Development

Development of a single isolated egg cell to the zygote, embryo and finally to a fertile hybrid plant or from an isolated central cell to endosperm after IVF have exclusively been reported in maize 27, 29 . Embryo and endosperm development occurs in culture independently from each other and without female tissue. Sustained growth of in vitro fertilised egg cells or isolated zygotes has been achieved by co-cultivation of zygotes and feeder cells. The feeder effect depends on the medium...

Pathways of Androgenesis

Based on the studies in different plants, the five routes of androgenesis that have been identified are (i) by repeated divisions of the vegetative cell, (ii) by repeated divisions of the generative cell, (iii) by repeated divisions of both, (iv) through symmetrical divisions in uninucleate microspore giving rise to two identical cells rather than unequal generative and vegetative cells (B-pathway) and (v) origin from fusion product of generative and vegetative. A species can exhibit...

Professor Sant Saran Bhojwani

Nam Adhari and Mr. Parmanand on 20th November, 1940 in the serene and tranquil environment of Dayalbagh, about 3 km from the hustle-bustle of the Agra city. He had his early education in Dayalbagh and graduated and postgraduated from Agra University. Soon after finishing M.Sc. (Botany), Dr Bhojwani served his alma-mater (R.E.I. Dayalbagh, Agra) as lecturer for one year before joining the University of Delhi as a doctoral student. His supervisor, late...

Infoplant Biotech

*Unpublished data from our laboratory. *Unpublished data from our laboratory. The first report of the introduction of yeast odc gene was in root cultures of tobacco using Agrobacterium rhizogenes 112 . The study was aimed to increase the nicotine content of the culture as PUT is a precursor for nicotine. Hence, over-production of PUT was attempted by using a double enhancer sequence containing promoter but only a 3-fold increase in ODC activity and a 2-fold increase in nicotine was observed....

B

MS + IAA or IBA (0.1) + BAP (1.5) + Ad (50) MS + (in iM) Ad (27.2) + IBA (2.46) MS + IBA (4.92 iM) Cardiovascular diseases, sedative or tranquillizer MS + BAP (1.0) + NAA (0.1) MS + NAA (2.0) + BAP (1.5) MS + (in iM) BAP (8.87) + IAA (5.71) MS + IAA (0.1) + Kn (5.0) MS + NAA (0.1) + Zt (0.5) MS + 2,4- D (3.0) + Kn (1.0) MS + BAP (3.0) MS + NAA (2.0) MS + (in iM) 2,4-D (9.04) + Kn (0.05) MS + 2iP (9.84 iM) MS MS + (in iM) IBA (2.46) + BAP (1.33) MS + BAP (4.44 iM) MS + (in iM) NAA (4.03) + BAP...

Transitional Forms from Embryo to Bud

Asterad Type

The analysis of literature and the original data on the development of sexual and somatic embryos in natural conditions and in vitro has led us to conclude, that there are structures which differ from typical sexual and somatic embryos and from bud by their morphology. In connection with this we introduce now a term transitional form (in the terms of evolution) which means a structure exhibiting traits of an embryo (for example, globular, heart- and torpedo-shaped stages of development) and of...

Media Composition

The basic media composition for microspore culture protocols in various oilseed brassicas have mostly been the same over the years. Initial reports of anther culture in oilseed brassicas emphasized the role of increased sucrose concentration in culture media 51, 60 . Subsequent to this, it was established that high sucrose concentration 10 to 13 is essential for microspore embryogenesis in anther as well as isolated microspore culture in B. napus 49, 52, 56 . Keller et al. 60 demonstrated that...