Restriction fragmentsite comparisons

Until about 1998, restriction enzyme approaches were the most widely used techniques for estimating phylogenetic relationships among plants (see Jansen et al., 1998). The earliest applications of this approach used highly purified cpDNA (e.g. Palmer and Zamir, 1982). By the late 1980s, researchers utilized total genomic DNA from which the cpDNA could be visualized by Southern hybridization (reviewed in Palmer et al., 1988). The latter approach overcame the difficulties of isolating sufficient...

Eudicots

Eudicots are composed of three major groups caryophyllids (a single order, Caryophyllales), rosids (13 orders) and aster-ids (nine orders). In addition to these (the core eudicots), there are a number of smaller families and orders that form a grade with respect to the core eudicots. The largest of these are Ranunculales, which include the buttercups (Ranunculaceae) and poppies (Papaveraceae), and Proteales, which include the plane tree (Platanaceae), lotus (Nelumbonaceae) and protea...

Department of Ecology Evolution and Organismal Biology Iowa State University Ames IA 50011 USA 2 Department of Plant

One of the central goals of evolutionary biology is to understand the origin of new lineages and species. Accordingly, there is an abiding interest in the processes by which biodiversity arises, and in elucidating the full spectrum of intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic forces that shape the specia-tion process. In plants, one of the more prominent mechanisms of speciation involves genome doubling, or polyploidy. This phenomenon exemplifies the complex interplay between 'intrinsic mechanisms'...

The conifer families

Leaves are linear, acicular, spirally arranged, or dimorphic, bract-like and acicular, on specialized short shoots. Male cones are lateral, comprising numerous spirally arranged fertile scales, each scale with two abaxial microsporangia pollen is winged, with two air sacs (except in Larix and Pseudotsuga). Female cones are terminal on specialized lateral shoots, comprising numerous spirally arranged imbricate woody or dry fertile scales each scale has a free bract and two inverted adaxial...

Asterids

The second major group of eudicots is the asterids, which are subdivided into three major subgroups, only the last two of which have typically been considered to be members of formally recognized asterid taxa. Asterids differ in a number of technical and chemical characters from the rosids, but their flowers differ in having fused petals to which a single whorl of stamens is typically attached. This sympetalous corolla fused to the stamens is sometimes modified late in floral development, such...

References Of Plant Diversity

Beck, C.B. (ed.) (1976) Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Bock, W. (1969) The American Triassic flora and global distribution. Geological Center Research Series, Volumes 3 and 4. Geological Center, North Wales, Pennsylvania. Bowe, L.M., Coat, G. and dePamphilis, C.W. (2000) Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers. Proceedings of the National...

CAB International 2005 Plant Diversity and Evolution Genotypic and Phenotypic Variation in Higher Plants ed RJ Henry

Differently, usually in line with their intuitive assessments of which suites of characters were most informative. Other differences between morphologically based classifications (e.g. Cronquist, 1981 Thorne, 1992 Takhtajan, 1997) have to do with the hierarchical ranks given to the same groups of lower taxa. For example, Platanaceae (one genus, Platanus) were placed in the order Hamamelidales by Cronquist (1981), the order Platanales by Thorne (1992), and the subclass Platanidae by Takhtajan...

Austrobaileyales

Magnoiia les Laura les Canella les Pipera les J Sabiaceae Proteales Buxaceae Trochodendraceae Aextoxicaceae Berberidopsidaceae Dilleniaceae Fig. 2.1. The APG classification displayed in cladogram format. The patterns of relationships shown are those that were well supported in Soltis etal. (2000) or other studies the data analysed in these studies included at least plastid rbcL and atpB and nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Rosid and asterid families not yet placed in one of the established orders...