Info

Figure 1. Changes of the redox state in the rhizosphere related to the intensity of daylight shown for several days in mid-summer (adapted from [ 121]).

The correlation between the gas exchange by the plants and carbon removal inside the rhizosphere also can be derived from a long-term seasonal evaluation, as shown in Figure 3. The increase in global radiation during the summer causes more intensive internal ventilation inside the plants. The resulting higher intensities of oxygen release into the rhizosphere on the other hand cause higher intensities of carbon removal and minimum outflow concentrations of COD, respectively. Contrasting behaviour is observed during darker seasons.

6. Outlook

Especially in natural and in simple horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands; the interactions of the helophytes and their rhizosphere are of importance for the efficiency of the removal processes. The gas exchange by the plants is mainly responsible for influencing the redox conditions and the removal processes inside the rhizosphere. Above all, oxygenation initiates diurnal and temporal gradients of redox states and oxygen availability in the area around the roots and enables different chemical and biological oxidation and anoxic processes to take place simultaneously close together.

Our knowledge of these correlations in the rhizoplane and the roots' environment is by no means complete. However, they must be understood if treatment wetlands are to be ideally designed and operated.

Figure 2. Changes of the pH in the rhizosphere correlated to the redox state shown for several days in midsummer (adapted from [ 121]).

The problem is that because technologists mainly evaluate overall removal efficiencies by "black box" investigations of treatment wetlands, too little is known about the main processes and their phytobiological, microbiological and chemical interactions in the rhizosphere. Moreover, plant biologists extensively investigate the fundamental anatomical and physiological aspects of plants' gas exchange independently of technical application. Future biotechnological investigations should be based on current biological and technological expertise and should favour a combination of methods. Such investigations should be focused on: i) quantifying the amounts of gas transported into and out of the rhizosphere; ii) evaluating the variability of oxygen release by the plants into their rhizosphere; iii) investigating micro-gradient processes inside the rhizosphere by using suitable laboratory-scale techniques; iv) evaluating the microbial diversity inside the rhizosphere.

Figure 3. Mean COD outflow concentrations and the monthly sum of sunshine periods (MSSP) for a two years operation period (adapted from [ 121]).

References

[1] White, KD and Burken, JG (1999) Natural treatment and on-site processes. Water Environment Research 71(5): 676-685

[2] Williams, JB (2002) Phytoremediation in wetland ecosystems: Progress, problems, and potential. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 21(6): 607-635

[3] Kadlec, R (1987) Nothern natural wetland water treatment systems, in KR Reddy and WH Smith, Eds., Aquatic plants for water treatment and resource recovery. Magnolia Publ., Orlando, FL, USA, 83-98

[4] Wissing, F (1995) Wasserreinigung mit Pflanzen. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany

[5] Anonymous (1998) ATV instructions. Principles for the Dimensioning, Construction and Operation of Plant Beds for Communal Wastewater with Capacities up to 1000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents. Society for Promotion of Wastewater Treatment Technology e.V. (GFA), Hennef, Germany

[6] Kadlec, R; Knight, R; Vymazal, J; Brix, H; Cooper, P and Haberl, R (2000) Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control. IWA Publishing, London, UK

[7] Stottmeister, U; Wiessner, A; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Kästner, M; Bederski, O; Müller, RA and Moormann, H (2004) Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biotechnology Advances 22(1-2): 93-117

[8] Greenway, M and Bolton, KGE (1996) From wastes to resources - turning over a new leaf: Melaleuca trees for wastewater treatment. Environmental Res. Forum 5-6: 363-366

[9] Ponnamperuma, FN (1972) The chemistry of submerged soil. Advances in Agronomy 24: 29-96

[10] Gambrell, RP and Patrick, WH (1978) Chemical and microbiological properties of anaerobic soils and sediments, in DD Hook and RMM Crawford, Eds., Plant life in anaerobic environments. Ann Arbor Science, Michigan, USA, 375-423

[11] Ponnamperuma, FN (1984) Effects of flooding on soils, in TT Kozlowski, Ed., Flooding and Plant Growth. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, USA, 1-44

[12] Gambrell, RP; DeLaune, RD and Patrick, WH (1991) Redox processes in soil following oxygen depletion, in MB Jackson, DD Davies and H Lambers, Eds, Plant Life Under Oxygen Deprivation: Ecology, Physiology, and Biochemistry. SPB Academic Publisher, The Hague, Netherlands, 101-117

[13] Pezeshki, SR (2001) Wetland plant responses to soil flooding. Environmental and Experimental Botany 46(3): 299-312

[14] Patrick, WH and DeLaune, RD (1977) Chemical and biological redox systems affecting nutrient availability in the coastal wetlands. Geoscience and Man 17: 131-137

[15] Turner, FT and Patrick, WH (1968) Chemical changes in waterlogged soils as a result of oxygen depletion, in Transactions of the 9th congress of the International Society of Soil Science 4: 53-56

[16] DeLaune, RD; Pezeshki, SR and Pardue, JH (1990) An oxidation-reduction buffer for evaluating physiological response of plants to root oxygen stress. Environ Exp Bot 30: 243-247

[17] Armstrong, W; Braendle, R and Jackson, MB (1994) Mechanisms of flood tolerance in plants. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 43: 307-358

[18] Armstrong, J; Armstrong, W; Beckett, PM; Halder, JE; Lythe, S; Holt, R and Sinclair, A (1996) Pathways of aeration and the mechanisms and beneficial effects of humidity- and Venturi-induced convections in Phragmites australis (Cav) Trin ex Steud. Aquatic Botany 54(2-3): 177-197

[19] Armstrong, J; Armstrong, W and VanderPutten, WH (1996) Phragmites die-back: Bud and root death, blockages within the aeration and vascular systems and the possible role of phytotoxins. New Phytologist 133(3): 399-414

[20] Armstrong, W; Armstrong, J and Beckett, PM (1996) Pressurised aeration in wetland macrophytes: Some theoretical aspects of humidity-induced convection and thermal transpiration. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica 31(1): 25-36

[21] DeLaune, RD; Patrick, WH and Buresh, RJ (1978) Sedimentation rates determined by Cs-137 dating in a rapidly accreting salt marsh. Nature 275: 532-533

[22] Drew, MC and Lynch, JM (1980) Soil Anaerobiosis, Microorganisms, and Root Function. Annual Review of Phytopathology 18(1): 37-66

[23] Tanaka, A; Mulleriyawa, RP and Yasu, T (1968) Possibility of hydrogen sulphide induced iron toxicity of the rice plant. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 4: 1-6

[24] Allam, AI and Hollis, JP (1972) Sulphide inhibition of oxidases in rice roots. Phytopathology 62: 634-639

[25] King, GM; Klug, MJ; Wiegert, RG and Chalmers, AG (1982) Relation of soil water movement and sulfide concentration to Spartina alterniflora production in a Georgia saltmarsh. Science 218: 61-63

[26] Ingold, A and Havill, DC (1984) The influence of sulphide on the distribution of higher plants in salt marshes. Journal of Ecology 72: 1043-4054

[27] Havill, DC; Ingold, A and Pearson, J (1985) Sulphide tolerance in coastal halophytes. Vegetatio 62: 279-285

[28] Rao, DN and Mikkelsen, DS (1977) Effects of acidic, propionic, and butyric acids on rice seedling growth and nutrition. Plant and Soil 47: 323-334

[29] Armstrong, J; Afreen Zobayed, F and Armstrong, W (1996) Phragmites die-back: Sulphide- and acetic acid-induced bud and root death, lignifications, and blockages within aeration and vascular systems. New Phytologist 134(4): 601-614

[30] Armstrong, J and Armstrong, W (1999) Phragmites die-back: toxic effects of propionic, butyric and caproic acids in relation to pH. New Phytologist 142(2): 201-217

[31] Kramer, PJ (1940) Causes of decreased absorption of water by plants in poorly aerated media. Am J Bot 27: 216-220

[32] Hiron, RWP and Wright, STC (1973) The role of endogenous abscisic acid in the response of plants to stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 24: 769-781

[33] Pezeshki, SR (1993) Differences in patterns of photosynthetic responses to hypoxia in flood-tolerant and flood-sensitive tree species. Photosynthetica 28: 423-430

[34] Pezeshki, SR and Anderson, PA (1997) Response of three bottomland woody species with different flood-tolerance capabilities to various flooding regimes. Wetland Ecol Manag 4: 245-256

[35] Kludze, HK and DeLaune, RD (1994) Methane emission and growth of Spartina patens in response to soil redox intensity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 1838-1845

[36] Pezeshki, SR (1994) Plant responses to flooding, in RE Wilkinson, Ed, Plant-Environment Interactions. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 289-321

[37] Kludze, HK and DeLaune, RD (1995) Straw application effects on Methane and oxygen exchange and growth in rice. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59: 824-830

[38] Hook, DD and Crawford, RMM (1978) Plant life in anaerobic environments. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Michigan, MA, USA

[39] Kozlowski, TT (1984) Flooding and Plant Growth. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA

[40] Kozlowski, TT (1984) Plant responses to flooding of soil. Bioscience 34: 1626-167

[41] Drew, MC (1990) Sensing soil oxygen. Plant Cell and Environment 13: 681-693

[42] Drew, MC (1997) Oxygen deficiency and root metabolism: Injury and acclimation under hypoxia and anoxia. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48: 223-250

[43] Kozlowski, TT (1997) Response of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiology Monograph 1: 1-29

[44] Vartapetian, BB and Jackson, MB (1997) Plant adaptations to anaerobic stress. Annals of Botany 79: 3-20

[45] Crawford, RMM and Braendle, R (1996) Oxygen deprivation stress in a changing environment. Journal of Experimental Botany 47(295): 145-159

[46] Teal, JM and Kanwisher, JW (1966) Gas transport in the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Journal of Experimental Botany 17: 355-361

[47] Armstrong, W; Justin, SHFW; Beckett, PM and Lythe, S (1991) Root adaptation to soil waterlogging. Aquatic Botany 39(1-2): 57-73

[48] Perata, P and Alpi, A (1993) Plant responses to anaerobiosis. Plant Science 93(1-2): 1-17

[49] Grosse, W and Schröder, P (1986) Pflanzenleben unter anaeroben Umweltbedingungen, die physikalischen Grundlagen und anatomischen Voraussetzungen. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 99: 367-81

[50] Colmer, TD (2003) Long-distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and radial oxygen loss from roots. Plant Cell and Environment 26(1): 17-36

[51] Allen, LH (1997) Mechanisms and rates of O2 transfer to and through submerged rhizomes and roots via aerenchyma. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings 56: 41-54

[52] Jackson, MB and Armstrong, W (1999) Formation of aerenchyma and the processes of plant ventilation in relation to soil flooding and submergence. Plant Biology 1(3): 274-287

[53] Soukup, A; Votrubova, O and Cizkova, H (2000) Internal segmentation of rhizomes of Phragmites australis: protection of the internal aeration system against being flooded. New Phytologist 145(1): 71-75

[54] Armstrong, W (1979) Aeration in higher Plants. Advances in Botanical Research 7: 225-332

[55] Dacey, JWH (1981) Pressurized Ventilation in the Yellow Waterlily. Ecology 62(5): 1137-1147

[56] Armstrong, W and Beckett PM (1987) Internal aeration and the development of stelar anoxia in submerged roots: A multishelled mathematical model combining axial diffusion of oxygen in a cortex with radial losses to the stele, the wall layers and the rhizosphere. New Phytologist 105: 221-245

[57] Armstrong, J and Armstrong, W (1991) A convective through-flow of gases in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Aquatic Botany 39(1-2): 75-88

[58] Armstrong, J; Armstrong, W and Beckett, PM (1992) Phragmites australis: venturi- and humidity-induced pressure flows enhance rhizome aeration and rhizosphere oxidation. New Phytologist 120: 197-207

[59] Sorrell, BK; Brix, H and Orr, PT (1997) Eleocharis sphacelata: Internal gas transport pathways and modelling of aeration by pressurized flow and diffusion. New Phytologist 136(3): 433-442

[60] Vretare, V and Weisner, SEB (2000) Influence of pressurized ventilation on performance of an emergent macrophyte (Phragmites australis). Journal of Ecology 88(6): 978-987

[61] Grosse, W (1989) Thermoosmotic air transport in aquatic plants affecting growth activities and oxygen diffusion to wetland soils, in DA Hammer, Ed, Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural. Lewis Publisher, Chelsea, UK, 416-469

[62] Bendix, M; Tornbjerg, T and Brix, H (1994) Internal gas transport in Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. 1. Humidity-induced pressurization and convective throughflow. Aquatic Botany 49(2-3): 75-89

[63] Grosse, W (1996) The mechanism of thermal transpiration (equals thermal osmosis). Aquatic Botany 54(2-3): 101-110

[64] Woermann, D; Metzner, H and Grosse, W (2002) Humidity-induced convection of air across porous membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 206(1-2): 69-85

[65] Grosse, W; Armstrong, J and Armstrong, W (1996) A history of pressurised gas-flow studies in plants. Aquatic Botany 54(2-3): 87-100

[66] Gilbert, B and Frenzel, P (1998) Rice roots and CH4 oxidation: The activity of bacteria, their distribution and the microenvironment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(14): 1903-1916

[67] Reddy, KR; Patrick, WH and Lindau, CW (1989) Nitrification-denitrification at the plant root-sediment interface in wetlands. Limnology and Oceanography 34: 1004-1013

[68] Kirk, GJD and Bajita, JB (1995) Root-induced iron oxidation, pH changes and zinc solubilisation in the rhizosphere of lowland rice. New Phytologist 131: 129-137

[69] Saleque, MA and Kirk, GJD (1995) Root-induced solubilisation of phosphate in the rhizosphere of lowland rice. New Phytologist 129: 325-336

[70] Christensen, KK and Wigand, C (1998) Formation of root plaques and their influence on tissue phosphorus content in Lobelia dortmanna. Aquatic Botany 61(2): 111-122

[71] Laanbroek, HJ (1990) Bacterial cycling of minerals that affect plant growth in waterlogged soils: a review. Aquatic Botany 38(1): 109-125

[72] Begg, CBM; Kirk, GJD; MacKenzie, AF and Neue, HU (1994) Root-induced iron oxidation and pH change in the lowland rice rhizosphere. New Phytologist 128: 469-477

[73] Mendelssohn, IA; Keiss, BA and Wakeley, JS (1995) Factors controlling the formation of oxidised root channels: a review. Wetlands 15: 37-46

[74] St-Cyr, L and Campbell, PGC (1996) Metals (Fe, Mn, Zn) in the root plaque of submerged aquatic plants collected in situ: relations with metal concentrations in the adjacent sediments and in the root tissue. Biogeochemistry 33: 45-76

[75] Sorrell, BK; Mendelssohn, IA; McKee, KL and Woods, RA (2000) Ecophysiology of wetland plant roots: A modelling comparison of aeration in relation to species distribution. Annals of Botany 86(3): 675-685

[76] Bouma, TJ; Koutstaal, BP; van Dongen, M and Nielsen, KL (2001) Coping with low nutrient availability and inundation: root growth responses of three halophytic grass species from different elevations along a flooding gradient. Oecologia 126(4): 472-481

[77] Armstrong, W; Armstrong, J and Beckett, PM (1990) Measurment and modelling of oxygen release from roots of Phragmites australis, in P Cooper and BC Findler, Eds, The Use of Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 41-54

[78] Green, MS and Etherington, JR (1977) Oxidation of ferrous iron by rice (Oriza sativa) roots: a mechanism for waterlogging tolerance? Journal of Experimental Botany 28: 678-690

[79] Jaynes, ML and Carpenter, SR (1986) Effects of Vascular and Nonvascular Macrophytes on Sediment Redox and Solute Dynamics. Ecology 67(4): 875-882

[80] Koncalova, H (1990) Anatomical adaptations to waterlogging in roots of wetland graminoids: limitations and drawbacks. Aquatic Botany 38(1): 127-134

[81] Chabbi, A; McKee, KL and Mendelssohn, IA (2000) Fate of oxygen losses from Typha domingensis (Typhaceae) and Cladium jamaicense (Cyperaceae) and consequences for root metabolism. American Journal of Botany 87(8): 1081-1090

[82] Flessa, H (1991) Redoxprozesse in Böden in der Nähe von wachsenden und absterbenden Pflanzenwurzeln. Verlag Marie L. Leidorf, Buch am Erlbach, Germany

[83] Brix, H; Sorrell, BK and Schierup, HH (1996) Gas fluxes achieved by in situ convective flow in Phragmites australis. Aquatic Botany 54(2-3): 151-163

[84] Wiessner, A; Kuschk, P; Kästner, M and Stottmeister, U (2002) Abilities of helophyte species to release oxygen into rhizospheres with varying redox conditions in laboratory-scale hydroponic systems. International Journal of Phytoremediation 4(1): 1-15

[85] Sorrell, BK and Armstrong, W (1994) On the difficulties of measuring oxygen release by root systems of wetland plants. Journal of Ecology 82: 177-183

[86] Jespersen, DN; Sorrell, BK and Brix, H (1998) Growth and root oxygen release by Typha latifolia and its effects on sediment methanogenesis. Aquatic Botany 61(3): 165-180

[87] Kludze, HK and DeLaune, RD (1996) Soil redox intensity effects on oxygen exchange and growth of Cattail and Sawgrass. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60(2): 616-621

[88] Sorrell, BK (1999) Effect of external oxygen demand on radial oxygen loss by Juncus roots in titanium citrate solutions. Plant Cell and Environment 22(12): 1587-1593

[89] Wiessner, A; Kuschk, P and Stottmeister, U (2002) Oxygen release by roots of Typha latifolia and Juncus effusus in laboratory hydroponic systems. Acta Biotechnologica 22(1-2): 209-216

[90] Smith, KA and Russell, RS (1969) Occurrence of ethylene, and its significance in anaerobic soil. Nature 222: 769-771

[91] Smith, KA and Restall, SWF (1971) The occurrence of ethylene in anaerobic soil. Journal of Soil Science 22: 430-443

[92] Visser, EJW; Bogemann, GM; Blom, C and Voesenek, L (1996) Ethylene accumulation in waterlogged Rumex plants promotes formation of adventitious roots. Journal of Experimental Botany 47(296): 403-410

[93] Dacey, JWH (1979) Methane efflux from lake sediments through water lilies. Science 203: 1253-1255

[94] Dacey, JWH and Klug, MJ (1982) Tracer transport in Nuphar: 18O2 and 14CO2 transport. Physiologia Plantarum 56: 361-366

[95] Higuchi, T; Yoda, K and Tensho, K (1984) Further evidence for gaseous CO2 transport in relation to root uptake of CO2 in rice plant. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 30: 125-136

[96] Sebacher, DI; Harriss, RC and Bartlett, KB (1985) Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants. Journal of Environmental Quality 14: 40-46

[97] Sorrell, BK and Boon, PI (1994) Convective gas flow in Eleocharis sphacelata R. Br.: methane transport and release from wetlands. Aquatic Botany 47(3-4): 197-212

[98] Shannon, RD; White, JR; Lawson, JE and Gilmour, BS (1996) Methane efflux from emergent vegetation in peatlands. Journal of Ecology 84(2): 239-246

[99] Butterbach-Bahl, K; Papen, H and Rennenberg, H (1997) Impact of gas transport through rice cultivars on methane emission from rice paddy fields. Plant Cell and Environment 20(9): 1175-1183

[100] Yavitt, JB and Knapp, AK (1998) Aspects of methane flow from sediment through emergent cattail (Typha latifolia) plants. New Phytologist 139(3): 495-503

[101] Smith, KA and Robertson, PD (1971) Effect of ethylene on root extension of cereals. Nature 234(5325): 148-9

[102] Jackson, MB and Campbell, DJ (1975) Movement of ethylene from roots to shoots, a factor in the response of tomato plants to waterlogged soil conditions. New Phytologist 74: 397-406

[103] Drew, MC; Jackson, MB and Giffard, S (1979) Ethylene-promoted adventitious rooting and development of cortical air spaces (aerenchyma) in roots may be adaptive responses to flooding Zea mays L. Planta 147: 83-88

[104] Konings, H and Jackson, MB (1979) A relationship between rates of ethylene production by roots and the promoting or inhibiting effects of exogenous ethylene and water on root elongation. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie 92: 385-397

[105] Jackson, MB (1989) Regulation of aerenchyma formation in roots and shoots by oxygen and ethylene, in DJ Osborne and MB Jackson, Eds, Cell Separation in Plants: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. H35. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 263-274

[106] Liu, J; Mukherjee, I and Reid, DM (1990) Adventitious rooting in hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. III. The role of ethylene. Physiol Plant 78(2): 268-276

[107] Jackson, MB (1991) Ethylene in root growth and development, in AK Mattoo and JC Shuttle, Eds., The Plant Hormone Ethylene. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 259-278

[108] Visser, EJW; Nabben, RHM; Blom, C and Voesenek, L (1997) Elongation by primary lateral roots and adventitious roots during conditions of hypoxia and high ethylene concentrations. Plant Cell and Environment 20(5): 647-653

[109] Brix, H (1990) Uptake and photosynthetic utilization of sediment-derived carbon by Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Aquatic Botany 38(4): 377-389

[110] Constable, J and Longstreth, DJ (1994) Aerenchyma Carbon Dioxide can be assimilated in Typha Iatifolia L. Leaves. Plant Physiol. 106(3): 1065-1072

[111] Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, PJ and Bruhl, C (1993) Climate effects of atmospheric methane. Chemosphere 26(1-4): 739-768

[112] Helal, HM and Sauerbeck, D (1989) Carbon turnover in the rhizosphere. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 152: 211-216

[113] Miersch, J; Krauss, G-J and Sclee, D (1989) Allelochemische Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Pflanzen -eine kritische Wertung. Wiss Ztg Univ Halle 38: 59-74

[114] Hoffland, E; van de Boogaard, R; Nelemans, J and Findenegg, G (1992) Biosynthesis and root exudation of citric and malic acids in phosphate-starved rape plants. New Phytologist 122: 675-680

[115] Donnelly, PK; Hegde, RS and Fletcher, JS (1994) Growth of PCB-degrading bacteria on compounds from photosynthetic plants. Chemosphere 28(5): 981-988

[116] Horswell, J; Hodge, A and Killham, K (1997) Influence of plant carbon on the mineralisation of atrazine residues in soils. Chemosphere 34(8): 1739-1751

[117] Moormann, H; Kuschk, P and Stottmeister, U (2002) The effect of rhizodeposition from helophytes on bacterial degradation of phenolic compounds. Acta Biotechnologica 22(1-2): 107-112

[118] Kaitzis, G (1970) Mikrobiozide Verbindungen aus Scirpus lacustris L. (Ein Beitrag zur Ökochemie des Wurzelraumes). Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

[119] Wu, MY; Franz, EH and Chen, SL (2001) Oxygen fluxes and ammonia removal efficiencies in constructed treatment wetlands. Water Environment Research 73(6): 661-666

[120] Kappelmeyer, U; Wiessner, A; Kuschk, P and Kästner, M (2002) Operation of a Universal Test Unit for Planted Soil Filters - Planted Fixed Bed Reactor. Engineering in Life Sciences 2(10): 311-315

[121] Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer U; Kuschk, P and Kästner M (2005) Influence of the redox condition dynamics on the removal efficiency of a laboratory-scale constructed wetland. Water Research 39: 248-256

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Body Detox Made Easy

Body Detox Made Easy

What exactly is a detox routine? Basically a detox routine is an all-natural method of cleansing yourbr body by giving it the time and conditions it needs to rebuild and heal from the damages of daily life and the foods you eat and other substances you intake. There are many different types of known detox routines.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment