Storage Lipids Are Converted into Carbohydrates in Germinating Seeds

Metabolization Seed Storage Cycle

After germinating, oil-containing seeds metabolize stored triacylglycerols by converting lipids to sucrose. Plants are not able to transport fats from the endosperm to the root and shoot tissues of the germinating seedling, so they must convert stored lipids to a more mobile form of carbon, generally sucrose. This process involves several steps that are located in different cellular compartments oleosomes, gly-oxysomes, mitochondria, and cytosol. Overview Lipids to sucrose. The conversion of...

Mitochondria Are Semiautonomous Organelles

The breakdown of sucrose to pyruvate releases less than 25 of the total energy in sucrose the remaining energy is stored in the two molecules of pyruvate. The next two stages of respiration (the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation i.e., electron transport coupled to ATP synthesis) take place within an organelle enclosed by a double membrane, the mitochondrion (plural mitochondria). In electron micrographs, plant mitochondria whether in situ or in vitro usually look spherical or...

Aerobic Respiration Yields about 60 Molecules of ATP per Molecule of Sucrose

The complete oxidation of a sucrose molecule leads to the net formation of 8 molecules of ATP by substrate-level phosphoryla-tion 4 during glycolysis and 4 in the citric acid cycle 4 molecules of NADH in the cytosol 16 molecules of NADH plus 4 molecules of FADH2 via succinate dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix On the basis of theoretical ADP O values see Table 11.1 , a total of approximately 52 molecules of ATP will be generated Uptake of pyruvate in exchange for a hydroxy ion is...