Somatic embryos can be initiated directly from microspores. Usually it is necessary to culture the microspores within anthers, but occasionally it has been possible to induce embryogenesis from isolated microspores. Anther and microspore culture are described in Chapter 1, but because the plants produced by anther culture are likely to be dissimilar to their parents, we shall not consider the method in any detail in this book, and reports of anther culture have been largely omitted from the tables in Volume 2. Good references to this topic are available in the series of books published by Jain et al. (1996 and 1997).
Anther culture can result in callus formation; the callus may then give rise to plants through indirect embryogenesis or adventitious shoot formation.
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