The developmental history of mental health treatments parallels the development of any scientific endeavor, including the development of the various health and clinical sciences. The objects of study change with paradigm shifts, technological advances, and social forces that any particular practice exists among and within. The treatments discussed in the previous chapters (Chapters 12, 13, and 14) in some respects represent the more stereotypical forms of treatment for mental disorders in general and PTSD specifically. The treatments to be covered here are less mainstream in some ways and less rooted in the historical tradition of mental health treatment. However, this is not to imply they are lacking in efficacy, sophistication, or rigor for these reasons. Just as the history of psychology, for instance, moves from paradigm to paradigm, from psychoanalysis to behaviorism to cognitivism, so, too, do these shifts occur in the development of clinical science and practice.
The main difference between the treatments to be covered in this chapter is their focus on clinical variables and phenomenon the treatments in the previous chapters did not. Of course, there is considerable overlap between the underlying biopsychosocial foundations of these treatments with the previous ones, but these treatments are different in important ways and deserve discussion in their own right. Further, an inevitable outcome of the existence of these various treatments and both the theoretical and empirical exploration of their efficacies is the bringing together of the various effective treatments and helpful elements into comprehensive and integrated models of treatment. As researchers, theorists, and practitioners explore these various treatments, someone eventually sees a way to bring them together into a complete clinical picture. Some of these integrated models will also be introduced and discussed here.
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