Inclusion and exclusion criteria are outlined in Table 9.1.
The main focus of this series is to review the evidence for policies and programmes aiming to achieve the global goals and targets on HIV and young people in developing countries. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for this specific component of the chapter have therefore been tighter and more aligned with other chapters in this series than the inclusion and exclusion criteria for studies that have been included for the last two categories above (studies in developed countries and studies in developing countries that have not disaggregated their data by age). These categories have been included only to provide a broader evidence context for assessing the effectiveness of interventions directed towards the groups who are the primary focus of the series.
A systematic literature review was undertaken, including searches in databases (PubMed, POPLINE, CAB Direct, Cochrane Library and Educational Research Abstracts Online), recent issues of journals focusing on young people's health and HIV prevention activities (AIDS, AIDS and Behavior, AIDS Care, AIDS Education and Prevention, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Behavior Modification, Journal of Adolescent Health, Journal of Adolescent Research, Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education for Adolescents and Children, Journal of Sex Education and Therapy), and finally on relevant web sites, such as WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNESCO, the United Kingdom Department for International Development (including the Safe Passages to Adulthood research programme), German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Family Health International (including YouthNet), Population Council, Pathfinder International, AIDS Education Global Information System (AEGiS), International Centre
Inclusion and exclusion criteria used to identify studies for review. (Numbers in parentheses refer to categories listed in section 9.2.1)
Interventions designed to mitigate vulnerability to HIV infection through providing increased access to information, skills and services (categories 1-4)
Interventions that aim to decrease vulnerability to HIV, such as structural interventions
Interventions implemented in developing countries that aim to reduce the risk of HIV transmission among injecting drug users, sex workers and men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (categories 1 and 4) Interventions in developing countries were aimed at reducing the risk of HIV transmission among young people aged 1024 who are injecting drug users, sex workers or men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (categories 1 and 2)
Interventions in developed countries that aimed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in young (10-24 years) injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (category 3)
Study provides a description of the Study provides inadequate descriptions of intervention that enables a judgement to be the content of the intervention, the design of made about what was done (category 2) the study or how data were collected and analysed (category 2)
Study provides a description of the evaluation design and there were sufficient data to make a judgement about the level of evidence of effectiveness (category 2) Research and reports were published between 1990 and 2004
for Reproductive Health (ICRH), International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), KIT (Royal Tropical Institute of the Netherlands) library catalogue, International Council on Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for
Communication Programs, CAPS - the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Streetkids-SRH.org, and the Network of Sex Work Projects.
A number of review articles on HIV prevention interventions that focused on young people (1-6) and developing countries (7) were scanned for relevant studies. All reference sections of peer-reviewed papers identified during this literature search were checked for additional articles of interest. Finally, 12 experts working in the field were contacted to identify unpublished research.
A less extensive search was made for studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions in developing countries directed towards injecting drug users, sex workers and men who have sex with men but that did not disaggregate the data by age and for studies of interventions targeted at young people most at risk of HIV in developed countries, predominantly the United States.
No systematic search for studies reported in languages other than English was undertaken.
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