Molecular Profiling Of Human Prostate Tumor Specimens

For many anticancer agents, prediction of therapeutic response or resistance in a clinical trial can be made with a biopsy. This requires the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple protein biomarkers on tissue specimens. Current technologies allow neither simultaneous detection nor exact quantification of multiple therapeutic target proteins in cancer specimens. QDs conjugated to high avidity directed antibodies, permits a rapid, simultaneous assessment and quantification of can-

Fig. 5. Quantum dot (QD)-immunostaining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human prostate tumor specimens. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of dual-color QD-stained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, see text for details. (B) Quantitative measurement of QD fluorescence intensity. The region of interest can be selected manually (e.g., the blue circle in panel A) and quantified using a wavelength-resolved spectrometer.

Fig. 5. Quantum dot (QD)-immunostaining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human prostate tumor specimens. (A) Fluorescence micrograph of dual-color QD-stained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, see text for details. (B) Quantitative measurement of QD fluorescence intensity. The region of interest can be selected manually (e.g., the blue circle in panel A) and quantified using a wavelength-resolved spectrometer.

cer biomarkers. The simultaneous detection of multiple proteins allows interrogation of entire signal transduction pathways in cancer tissues in response to novel agents. Ultimately, the use of QD antibody nanotyping may allow the exact tailoring of specific therapies to individual patients. Figure 5A shows the immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of human prostate cancer using QDs. Mutated p53 phosphoprotein overexpressed in the nuclei of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells is labeled with red-color QDs (antibody DO-7; DAKO); whereas early growth response protein, egr-1, is tagged with green-color QDs. Quantitative spectro-

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