Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer213

Jose A. Karam, Elie A. Benaim, Hong Chen, Rey-Chen Pong and Jer-Tsong Hsieh

Introduction 213 The Role of CpG Dinucleotides in DNA

Methylation 213

Methyl Binding Proteins (MBP) 214

DNA Methyltransferases (DNMTs) 215

DNMT Inhibitors 216

Histones 217

Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) 220

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDIs) 220 The Interaction Between DNA Methylation and

Histone Modifications in Gene Regulation 221 Epigenetics in the Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of PCa 222

Membrane Receptors 224

Nuclear Receptors 225

Nuclear Proteins 227

Conclusion 228

References 228

10 Significance of 5a-Reductase in Prostate Cancer 243

Jun Shimazaki

Introduction 243

5a-Reductase 243 Formation and Metabolism of DHT in

Cancerous Prostate 245

Risk of DHT Formation 246

Treatment with Inhibitors 249

Prevention 250

Conclusion 252

References 252

11 Roles of Vitamin E in Prostate and Prostate Cancer 263

Shuyuan Yeh, Jing Ni, Eugene Chang, Yi Yin and Ming Chen

Introduction 263

Vitamin E and its Analogs 264

Vitamin E Absorption and Transport 264

Functional Mechanisms of Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer 265 In vivo Animal Study of Vitamin E's Role in Prostate and

Prostate Cancer 268

Clinical Study of Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer 269

Summary 271

References 272

12 Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer 277

Yi-Fen Lee, Huei-Ju Ting andBo-Ying Bao

Introduction 277

Epidemiology Study 278

Vitamin D Action 279 Mechanism of Anti-tumor Action in Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D 280 Development of New Vitamin D Analogs and their use in Combination Therapy for Prostate Cancer 283

Vitamin D-Based Clinical Trials 284 Loss of Vitamin D Anti-proliferative Responsiveness in Prostate Cancer 285

Future Perspectives 286

References 287

13 Functions of Estrogen Receptor in Prostate and

Prostate Cancer 293

Shuyuan Yeh, Ming Chen, Jing Ni, Yi Yin, Eugene Chang, Min Zhang and Xingqing Wen

Introduction 293 Distribution of ERa and ERß in Prostate Tissues,

Cancer Specimens and Cancer Cell Lines 294

Estrogen Regulated Genes in Prostate Cancer 296

ER Coregulators in Prostate 297 Histological Changes in Prostates of aERKO and

PERKO Mice 298 Estrogen Imprinting Effect on the Development of

Prostate 298 Estrogen Treatment of aERKO, PERKO, and

Hypogonadal (hpg) Mouse Models 299

Estrogen Effect on Initiation, Growth, and Progression 302

of Prostate Cancer

Conclusion 305

References 305

14 Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer 315

Ann W. Hsing and Anand Chokkalingam

Introduction 315

Rates and Patterns 321

Risk Factors 331

Challenges of Studies with Common Polymorphisms 344

Summary 346

References 347

15 Profiling Gene Expression Changes in

Prostate Carcinoma 365

Peter S. Nelson

Introduction 365

Methods for Profiling Gene Expression Alterations 366 Microarray Studies of Gene Expression in

Prostate Carcinoma 367

Transcript Profiling and Predicting Cancer Outcomes 369 Proteomic Approaches for Assessing Gene Expression in Prostate Carcinoma 374

Conclusion and Future Directions 377

Acknowledgments 378

References 378

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