Conclusion

The initial events involved in protein adsorption causing solvation or con-formational changes can occur at the microsecond to millisecond time-scales, whereas conformational rearrangement as well as orientation and lateral distribution can occur over much longer time within the layer of adsorbed proteins. As a consequence, the biological function of the immo-bilisedproteinsismoreorlessaltereddependingontheadsorptionhistory. Combined progress in structural biology and nanoscale-patterned surfaces should lead to a better knowledge of the surface-induced conformational changes of proteins, determining their enzymatic and cell-binding activities or their recognition or pathogenic functions.

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