To some extent, protein resistance is very important for both antifouling of membranes during filtration and improving the hemocompatibility of

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(f) (g)

BSA concentration (g/L)

Fig. 19. BSA adsorption on PAN-based membranes. The HEMA mole fraction in the PANCHEMA membrane is 0% (a), 6.4% (b), 9.3% (c), and 17.8% (d), and the mole fraction of phospholipid moiety on PMANCP membrane surface is 6.09% (e), 9.19% (f), and 17.1% (g)

blood-contact membranes. The methods overviewed above, such as copoly-merization, PEG tethering, physical adsorption, biomacromolecule immobilization, and biomimetic modification, provide promising opportunities for protein resistance at the surface of PAN-based membranes. Many kinds of modifiers based on different protein-membrane interactions may lead to protein resistance in the same way. Among them, hydrophilic, charged, sterically hindered, or biomimetic agents ought to receive preference. Since there are so many modification methods and each approach possesses innate relative merits, one should choose the most suitable method in terms of the given aim and the varying membrane system.

Acknowledgements. Financial support obtained from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 50273032) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant no. 2003CB15705) are gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Dr. Fu-Qiang Nie and Dr. Rui-Qiang Kou very much for their contribution.

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