The control of protein adsorption on material surfaces is a most fundamental as well as important biomaterial-related research subject. Although surface designs have been performed to control protein-material interactions for many years, the surface structure, which can completely control the interactions, has not yet been optimized. To this end, nonfouling surfaces are required, and biomembrane-mimetic surfaces (e. g., phosphorylcholine polymers) might be one of the most suitable materials. In addition, a well-defined surface would be useful for clearly understanding protein-material interactions at the submolecular level. The study of adsorption is necessary to achieve progress with the next generation of biomaterials and thus secure a material that can control protein.

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