Two different ways have been used to anchor enzymes covalently onto the surface of textile fibers: (1) reaction with periodate on the cellulose chain, and (2) using a coupling agent to graft the enzyme onto the functional group of the textile. The first activation procedure involves the production of aldehyde groups on the cellulose chain via a reaction with periodate. A piece of textile (4 cm2) was treated with 10 ml of 0.5 M sodium periodate for 90 min in the dark. The tissue was then thoroughly washed with distilled water and dried at 50 °C for 2 h. Then the modified textile was then immersed in 4 ml of enzyme solution, for instance urease (1 mg/ml), for 24 h.
The second procedure involves a coupling agent, such as 1,4-phenylene-diisothiocyanate. It has been shown previously that this coupling agent allows the grafting of an enzyme onto a polymer support (Marchand Bry-naert 1999) via a reaction with the amino groups. The textile was immersed in 4 ml of the 1,4-phenylene-diisothiocyanate solution (4.3 mM) in dry toluene for 12 h. The textile was then rinsed with toluene and immersed in 4 ml of enzyme aqueous solution (1mg/ml) for 24 h.
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