U(z) = AG(lw) + AG(el) + AG(da) , with each of the terms given by AG(lw) = -Aur/(6z),
where r is the particle radius and AH the mean Hamaker constant;
where the p are the electrostatic surface potentials of adsorbent (particle) and adsorbate, and 1/k is the well known Debye length; and
where x is the decay length for the da interactions, and AG(da)l1 the da interaction energy for two infinite planar surfaces of the materials of adsorbent and adsorbate at "contact" (i. e. separated by a distance of approximately 0.15 nm).
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