DPI has been verified against a wide range of analytical techniques including x-ray crystallography, neutron reflection, fluorescence assays, dynamic light scattering, ellipsometry, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and molecular modelling, and it has been found to be in good experimental agreement with all of these for a range of experimental systems. Some example data are provided in Tables 1 and 2.
An example of an experiment using nanoparticles is shown in Fig. 1. Here, 80-nm silica nanoparticles were flowed over a polyethyleneimine-treated sensor surface, allowing electrostatic interactions to adhere the particles to the polymer/sensor surface. The packing efficiency of the silica spheres is poor when compared to the polymer layer, hence the drop in the density on introduction of the silica nanospheres but the mass increases and the thickness of the layer increases to 78 nm, which is in excellent agreement with the expected result.
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