Dementia may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible causes include brain tumors, subdural hematoma, slowly progressive or normal-pressure hydro-cephalus; head trauma; endocrine conditions (such as hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia); vitamin deficiencies (of thiamin, niacin, or vitamin B12); thyroid disease; ethanol abuse; infections; metabolic abnormalities; effects of medications; renal, hepatic, and neurological conditions; and depression. Irreversible dementia is more common in the elderly. Irreversible causes of dementia include diseases of the brain such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Pick's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and Huntington's diseases; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; vascular dementia; and head trauma.
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