Functionalism paved the way for the development of applied psychology, including psychological testing, clinical psychology, school psychology, and industrial and organizational psychology. Functionalism also facilitated the use of psychological research with a wide variety of subjects beyond the healthy adult male, including infants, children, the mentally ill, and nonhuman animals. Finally, functional psychologists used a wide variety of methods beyond that of introspection, including field studies, questionnaires, mental tests, and behavioral observations. These developments were responsible, in part, for the United States becoming the world center for psychological study by 1920. The term "functional psychology" faded from usage as it became clear that, by default, being simply a psychologist in the United States meant being a functional psychologist. The shift in psycholog ical thought instigated by functionalism set the stage for the next major evolutionary phase in American psychology, behaviorism.
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