Sources for Further Study

Allport, Gordon W. "An Autobiography." In A History of Psychology in Autobiography, edited by Edwin Garrigues Boring and Gardner Lindzey. Vol. 5. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967. Allport provides an interesting account of his life, including an encounter with Sigmund Freud. _. Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality. Reprint. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1967. A short, straightforward, clear statement of Allport's basic assumptions about personality. The author attempts to provide the basic foundation for a complete personality theory and emphasizes the importance of both open-minded-ness and eclecticism in the study of personality.

_. Pattern and Growth in Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and

Winston, 1967. This textbook is the most complete account of Allport's personality theory. It includes extensive descriptions of Allport's approach to personality and individuality, personality development, the structure of the personality, the characteristics of the mature personality, and methods of personality assessment. Allport, Gordon W., Philip E. Vernon, and Gardner Lindzey. Study of Values. 3d ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960. A scale that measures a person's preference for six value orientations: religious, theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, or political values. The personal ordering of these values provides a framework for reflecting upon and understanding the values that make up one's philosophy of life. The language is outdated and gender-biased, but the book represents one application of Allport's work.

Evans, Richard I. Gordon Allport: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Praeger, 1981. This book is based on a series of dialogues with Allport that focus on his unique contributions and his vision of the future of personality psychology. Also includes a discussion and evaluation of Allport's ideas by three distinguished psychologists who studied under his direction.

Maddi, Salvatore R., and Paul T. Costa. Humanism in Personology: Allport, Maslow, and Murray. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972. This volume compares the work of Allport with the contributions of two other humanistic personality theorists. Although the theories of these three differ substantially, they share an emphasis on human uniqueness, a faith in human capabilities, and a view of people as proactive, complex, and oriented toward the future.

Masterson, Jenny (Gove) [pseud.]. Letters from Jenny. Edited and interpreted by Gordon W. Allport. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965. An example of idiographic or morphogenic study of the personality. After studying 301 letters from an older woman to her son and his wife, Allport grouped her characteristics into eight clusters that correspond to the number of central dispositions that he proposed make important elements of personality.

Peterson, Christopher. Personality. 2d ed. San Diego, Calif.: International Thomson, 1992. This text on personality contains three chapters that summarize, compare, and evaluate various trait approaches along the following dimensions: theory, research, and applications. Describes major criticisms of trait approaches and discusses the practical implications of trait theories.

Carolyn Zerbe Enns

See also: Psychoanalytic Psychology and Personality: Sigmund Freud.

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