Sources for Further Study

Lieber, Robert M., and Michael D. Spiegler. Personality: Strategies and Issues.

7th ed. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1996. Chapter 21 presents aread-

able synopsis of Mischel's cognitive social-learning theory and reviews the concept of person variables, Mischel's work on delay of gratification, and his position on the interaction of emotion and cognition. Highly recommended as an easy introduction to Mischel's work.

Mischel, Harriet N., and Walter Mischel, eds. Readings in Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973. Presents a collection of papers by different authors on some of the central topics and viewpoints in personality psychology. Provides in-depth analyses of various trait, state, and social theories of personality. Several chapters by Walter Mischel present his views on social learning, personality, and his empirical work on self-control.

Mischel, Walter. Personality and Assessment. 1968. Reprint. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996. Classic exposition of Mischel's early work, containing a compelling critique of traditional trait and state approaches to personality. Discusses issues relevant to the assessment and modification of maladaptive social behavior. Should be available in many public and all university libraries.

_. "Toward a Cognitive Social Learning Reconceptualization of

Personality." Psychological Review 80, no. 4 (1973): 252-283. Written in response to the many reactions Mischel's 1968 book provoked in the research community. Clarifies several common misunderstandings of Mischel's position (for example, the situation-specificity issue) and gives a thorough presentation of his five personality variables. No specialized knowledge in psychology or personality theory is necessary for the reader to be able to follow the author's main arguments.

Mischel, Walter, Yuichi Shoda, and Monica L. Rodriguez. "Delay of Gratification in Children." Science244, no. 4907 (1989): 933-938. Presents an excellent, brief summary of Mischel's work on self-control and delay of gratification spanning almost two decades. Discusses a number of stable individual differences in information-processing and strategic behaviors used by preschool children that were predictive of adult social adjustment.

Edelgard Wulfert

See also: Cognitive Behavior Therapy; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive

Therapy; Learning; Personal Constructs: George A. Kelly; Social Learning:

Albert Bandura.

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