Sources for Further Study

Baldwin, John D., and Janice I. Baldwin. Behavior Principles in Everyday Life. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2001. Written by two sociologists, this book provides an overview of psychological principles of behavior, including many details about Pavlovian conditioning. The authors provide hundreds of plausible and interesting examples of how behavior principles show up in everyday life. Hergenhahn, B. R., and Matthew Olson. Introduction to Theories of Learning. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2001. This book describes the work of fifteen major figures in the area of learning. There are chapters about associative theorists such as Ivan Pavlov and functionalist theorists such as B. F. Skinner. A useful elementary survey of learning research and theory, spanning one hundred years of development. Rescorla, Robert A. "Pavlovian Conditioning: It's Not What You Think It Is." American Psychologist 43, no. 3 (May, 1988): 151-160. A critical analysis of Pavlovian conditioning by a leading researcher in the field. The author questions orthodox descriptions of conditioning because they imply that organisms form associations blindly. His view is that organisms actually seek out information using logic and perception to form sophisticated representations of the environment. Rescorla provides a sophisticated examination of the intricacies of conditioning, concentrating on the various outcomes of conditioning and on the circumstances that create them, while citing some of his own work in support of his position. Watson, John B., and Rosalie Rayner. "Conditioned Emotional Reactions." Journal of Experimental Psychology 3 (1920): 1-14. Although this research has been questioned on methodological and ethical grounds—for example, concerns have been raised about the deliberate creation of a phobic reaction in a young child—it is nonetheless a historically important experiment that provided information about how human emotions are learned. Wolpe, Joseph. The Practice ofBehavior Therapy. 4th ed. New York: Pergamon, 1990. A significant book by the behavior therapist largely responsible for the development of systematic desensitization. Wolpe discusses behavior therapy as it applies to simple and complex cases of fear and anxiety. He is highly critical of the view that therapy consists of little more than information processing and cognitive correction.

Frank J. Sparzo

See also: Behaviorism; Conditioning; Habituation and Sensitization; Learned Helplessness; Learning; Phobias; Reflexes.

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