Sources for Further Study

Feigenbaum, Ernes. Stereotactic Cingulotomy as a Means of Psychosurgery. Rock-

ville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public

Health Service, 1985. A useful description of one of the newer psycho-

surgical methods.

Fulton, John F. Frontal Lobotomy and Affective Behavior: A Neuropsychological

Analysis. New York: W. W. Norton, 1951. A prominent member of the American medical profession contemporary with António Egas Moniz and Pedro A. Lima discusses human and animal lobotomy. Fulton is strongly for lobotomy and lauds its achievements and prospects. The book has good references and illustrations.

Lader, Malcolm H., and Reginald Herrington. Biological Treatments in Psychiatry. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Covers the human brain, mental illness and principles of its treatment, neuropharmacology, psychosurgery, and ECT. Contains a good bibliography.

Rodgers, Joann Ellison. Psychosurgery: Damaging the Brain to Save the Mind. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. Covers psychosurgery in healing the chronically mentally ill. Describes methods which destroy only a few brain cells and their efficacy compared to drugs. Examines moral and medical pros and cons.

Turner, Eric A. Surgery of the Mind. Birmingham, England: Carmen Press, 1982. Answers questions regarding the ethics of carrying out psycho-surgery, its consequences, and its justifications. Topics include the brain, its function and operation, selection and management of lobotomy patients, various types of psychosurgery, and follow-up of five hundred psychosurgeries.

Valenstein, Elliot S. Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of Psycho-surgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness. New York: Basic Books, 1986. Well-thought-out history of psychosurgery. Includes theories of mentation leading to psychosurgery, methodology of its great proponents, and reasons for its replacement and limited use. Illustrated.

_, ed. The Psychosurgery Debate: Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives. New York: W. F. Freeman, 1980. Includes an overview of the history, rationale for, and extent of psychosurgery; patient selection; evaluation of methods used; description of legal and ethical issues; and an extensive bibliography.

Sanford S. Singer

See also: Anxiety Disorders; Bipolar Disorder; Brain Structure; Depression;

Madness: Historical Concepts; Schizophrenia: Background, Types, and Symptoms; Schizophrenia: Theoretical Explanations.

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