Sources for Further Study

Kazdin, Alan E. Behavior Modification in Applied Settings. 6th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001. An introduction to behavior modification that can be understood by the high school or college student. Operant techniques are clearly described, with the emphasis on how they are applied in a wide range of settings. Excellent discussion of recent developments in the field.

Modgil, Sohan, and Celia Modgil, eds. B. F. Skinner: Consensus and Controversy. New York: Falmer Press, 1987. A collection of essays by psychologists and philosophers. Each topic has a pro and contrary opinion, with replies and rebuttals. Although written at a professional level, this is an excellent volume for a global view of Skinner's ideas and for the clearest understanding of what is "radical" about Skinner's behaviorism.

O'Donoghue, William, and Kyle Ferguson. The Psychology of B. F. Skinner: Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. An attempt to clarify Skinner's psychology through discussion of his life, contributions to psychology, and philosophy of science.

Skinner, B. F. About Behaviorism. New York: Vintage Books, 1976. In this work Skinner argues for his radical behaviorism by contrasting it with methodological behaviorism and by illustrating how it treats topics such as perception, memory, verbal behavior, private events, and thinking.

_. Particulars of My Life. New York: New York University Press,


_. The Shaping of a Behaviorist. New York: New York University

Press, 1984.

_. A Matter of Consequences. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983. Skinner published his autobiography in three separate volumes, listed as the three previous titles. The first describes his life from birth, through his college years, to his entering Harvard University for graduate study in psychology. The Shaping of a Behaviorist presents his years at Harvard and his rise to national prominence. A Matter of Consequences begins with his return to Harvard as a professor in the late 1940's.

_. Science and Human Behavior Reprint. New York: Classics of Psychiatry & behavioral Sciences Library, 1992. A fine introduction to Skinner's thought. The principles of operant psychology are described, with numerous examples of the applicability to an individual's life and the major institutions of society. The chapter on private events illustrates one important way in which Skinner's radical behaviorism differs from methodological behaviorism.

_. Walden Two. Reprint. New York: Macmillan, 1990. A description of a fictional community based upon experimental practices and behav ioral principles. The book was the source of inspiration for several communes and illustrates how all aspects of culture can be submitted to a behavioral analysis. Contains a lengthy criticism of democracy as a form of government.

Vargas, Julie S. "B. F. Skinner, Father, Grandfather, Behavior Modifier." In About Human Nature: Journeys in Psychological Thought, edited by Terry J. Knapp and Charles T. Rasmussen. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1987. An intimate description of Skinner by his eldest daughter, who is herself a psychologist. Skinner's home, study, and the activities occurring over a Thanksgiving weekend are described.

Terry J. Knapp

See also: Behaviorism; Cognitive Behavior Therapy; Conditioning; Learning.

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