Sources for Further Study

Cote, James E., and Charles Levine. "A Critical Examination of the Ego Identity Status Paradigm." Developmental Review 8 (June, 1988): 147-184. Critiques the Marcia identity-status paradigm and notes several areas of divergence from Erikson's conceptualization theory of identity. Advances the argument for an interdisciplinary approach to understanding identity and identifies several questions about identity crises that need to be considered.

_. "A Formulation of Erikson's Theory of Ego Identity Formation." Developmental Review 7 (December, 1987): 209-218. A comprehensive review of Erikson's theory of ego identity and the role of psychological moratoria in the resolution of identity crises. Discusses Erikson's concepts of value orientation stages and the ego-superego conflict over personality control. Offers criticisms of Erikson's work and suggests cautions for the researcher. Erikson, Erik Homburger. Childhood and Society. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993. The thirty-fifth anniversary edition. A presentation of case histories based on Erikson's clinical experiences as well as a discussion of Erikson's life-cycle model of human development. One section of the book is devoted to an examination of youth and identity. Clinical studies are used to illustrate the problems youth face in identity resolution.

_. Identity, Youth,, and Crisis. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton,

1994. A theoretical discussion of ego identity formation and identity confusion, with special attention given to issues such as womanhood or race and identity. Erikson relies heavily on his vast clinical experiences to illustrate the concepts that he discusses. The life cycle as it applies to identity is examined from an epigenetic perspective. Kroger, Jane. Identity in Adolescence. 2d ed. New York: Routledge, 1996. A presentation of identity development as conceptualized by Erikson and others. Each approach is criticized, and the empirical findings generated by the approach are summarized. The first chapter of the book is devoted to an overview of identity from a developmental and sociocultural perspective. The final chapter presents an integration of what is known about identity.

Marcia, James E. "Identity in Adolescence." In Handbooks of Adolescent Psychology, edited by Joseph Adelson. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980. A discussion of the identity statuses developed by Marcia, based on a paradigm derived from Erikson's conceptualization of ego identity. Reviews the research literature on personality characteristics, patterns of interaction, developmental studies, identity in women, and other directions in identity research. Ends with a discussion of a general ego-developmental approach to identity.

Joseph C. LaVoie

See also: Adolescence: Cognitive Skills; Development; Ego Psychology: Erik

Erikson; Gender-Identity Formation; Psychoanalytic Psychology; Self.

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