Sources for Further Study

Coleman, A. M. "Crowd Psychology in South African Murder Trials." Ameri-canPsychologist 46, no. 10 (1992): 1071-1079. This article describes the use of modern social psychological research on crowd behavior to argue for extenuating factors in murder trials. The ethical issues raised from psychological testimony are discussed.

Gaskell, G., and R. Benewick, eds. The Crowd in Contemporary Britain. London: Sage, 1987. An excellent, comprehensive discussion of crowd behavior and political responses to it, drawing on work from scholars in several social scientific disciplines.

Le Bon, Gustave. The Crowd. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1995. First published in 1895, this classic work explores the nature of crowd behavior and the places in modern life where crowd behavior holds sway.

McPhail, Clark. The Myth of the Madding Crowd. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1991. Authored by one of the major modern researchers on crowd behavior, this book summarizes and critiques Gustave Le Bon and earlier crowd theorists and presents new formulations for understanding crowd behavior.

Mann, L. "The Baiting Crowd in Episodes of Threatened Suicide." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 41, no. 4 (1981): 703-709. In this paper, Mann provides a fascinating analysis of the factors that make crowds more likely than individuals to bait potential suicides.

_. "'The Crowd' Century: Reconciling Practical Success with Theoretical Failure." British Journal of Social Psychology 35, no. 4 (1996): 535553. Discusses the limits of Gustave Le Bon's crowd psychology theory and explores why, despite these limits, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini were able to use his theory so successfully to manipulate crowds.

Reicher, S. Crowd Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Scholarly perspectives on crowd behavior.

Van Ginneken, Jaap. Crowds, Psychology, and Politics, 1871-1899. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Provides a historical perspective on the development of the field of crowd psychology, showing how early theories were shaped by current political events.

Cynthia McPherson Frantz

See also: Aggression; Groups; Helping.

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