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Auerbach, Stephen M. "Assumptions of Crisis Theory and Temporal Model of Crisis Intervention." In Crisis Intervention with Children and Families, edited by Stephen M. Auerbach and Arnold L. Stolberg. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 1986. This chapter examines some basic issues pertaining to psychological responses to extremely stressful events, including the role of the passage of time, individual differences, and previous success in dealing with stressful events. Crisis intervention and other stress-management programs are also reviewed.

_. "Temporal Factors in Stress and Coping: Intervention Implications." In Personal Coping: Theory, Research, and Application, edited by B. N. Carpenter. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. Focuses on how behavioral and psychological stress responses differ depending on whether the stressor is anticipated, is currently ongoing, or has already occurred. The types of coping strategies that are likely to be most effective for each kind of stressor are described, and many examples are given.

Davis, Martha, Elizabeth Eshelman, and Matthew McKay. The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook. 5th ed. Oakland, Calif.: New Harbinger, 2000. An overview of techniques used to reduce stress. Sections include body awareness, progressive relaxation, visualization, biofeedback, coping skills training, job stress management, and assertiveness training.

Janis, Irving Lester. Stress and Frustration. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovano-vich, 1971. Describes some ofJanis's early investigations evaluating relationships between stress and behavior. The focus is on his pioneering study evaluating the relationship between preoperative stress levels in surgical patients and their ability to adapt to the rigors of the postoperative convalescent period.

Lazarus, Richard S. "From Psychological Stress to the Emotions: A History of Changing Outlooks." Annual Review of Psychology 44 (1993): 1-21. Discusses the history of the study and treatment of stress. Discusses his recent research that has involved the cognitive-mediational approach to the appraisal and coping processes that cause stress.

Miller, Todd, et al. "A Meta-analytic Review of Research on Hostility and Physical Health." Psychological Bulletin 119, no. 2 (1996): 322-348. Reviews more than sixty studies on hostility and health to show that cynical people have shorter life spans. In addition, those who display signs of anger are at increased risk for heart disease.

Pennebaker, James W. Opening Up: The Healing Power of Expressing Emotions. Rev. ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1997. Presents evidence that personal self-disclosure not only benefits emotional health but also boosts physical health. Explains how writing about problems can improve one's physical and psychological health.

Rodin, Judith, and Christine Timko. "Control, Aging and Health." In Aging, Health, and Behavior, edited by Marcia Ory, Ronald Abeles, and Paula Lipman. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1992. Reviews research on the relationship among stress and health.

Russell, James A., and Lisa F. Barrett. "Core Affect, Prototypical Emotional Episodes, and Other Things Called Emotion: Dissecting the Elephant." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 (1999): 805-819. This article discusses the validation of the circumplex model of emotion.

Silver, R. L., and C. Wortman. "Coping with Undesirable Life Events." In Human Helplessness, edited by Judy Garber and Martin E. P. Seligman. New York: Academic Press, 1980. The authors examine the behavioral consequences of encountering and adjusting to cataclysmic stressful events such as a disabling accident, a serious illness, or the death of a loved one. They review different theoretical formulations of reactions to stressful events and examine whether people's actual emotional and behavioral reactions are consistent with theories. They emphasize social support, the ability to find meaning in the outcome of the event, and experience with other stressors as important factors that determine how well people adjust.

Stephen M. Auerbach; updated by Todd Miller

See also: Stress-Related Diseases.

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