Sources for Further Study

Amsel, Abram. Mechanisms of Adaptive Behavior: Clark Hull's Theoretical Papers, with Commentary. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. An annotated collection of Hull's theoretical work on drives and behavior. Bolles, Robert C. Theory of Motivation. 2d ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. This standard text in motivation reviews the concepts of motivation and drive and present pros and cons of the drive concept. Freud, Sigmund. New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Translated and edited by James Strachey. New York: W. W. Norton, 1989. Freud's 1933 work explains his theory of the workings of the id, ego, and superego. His concept of behavioral energy is described in this book. Hull, Clark Leonard. Principles of Behavior. 1943. Reprint. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966. This bible of the Hullian neobehavioristic theory delineates the concepts of D and H and the philosophical bases of behavioral study. The theory has excited many students into studying psychology.

Pfaff, Donald W., ed. The Physiological Mechanisms of Motivation. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982. Various authors describe the physiological substrates of different sources of drive and motivation in terms of the nervous system, hormones, and body fluid parameters.

Stellar, James R., and Eliot Stellar. The Neurobiology of Motivation and Reward. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985. Eliot Stellar, one of the best-known theorists in biopsychology of motivation, along with his son, describes how biological antecedents of motivation can be found to explain various behavior.

Warden, Carl John. Animal Motivation: Experimental Studies on the Albino Rat. New York: Columbia University Press, 1931. This was the first research attempting to compare different sources of drive using various reward substances.

Sigmund Hsiao

See also: Hunger; Instinct Theory; Motivation; Thirst.

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