Sources for Further Study

Fancher, Raymond E. The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985. Presents the history of the various debates on intelligence in a highly readable fashion. The lives and ideas of the pioneers in the field, such as Alfred Binet and Francis Galton, are described in some detail.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. 2d ed. New York: Basic Books, 1993. Gardner's description of the talents he designates as "intelligences" and explanation of the reasons for his selections provide a fascinating introduction to many of the most intriguing aspects of the field, including the extremes of prodigies and prodigious savants.

_. Multiple Intelligences: Theory into Practice. New York: Basic Books,

1993. Gardner's update of his original theory of multiple intelligences adds an eighth intelligence to the set.

Guilford, Joy Paul. The Nature of Human Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Guilford describes the foundation of his theory of the structure of the intellect and in the process reviews the history of research into and theorizing about intelligence. This volume is an important contribution to the field.

Ryan, R. M., and E. L. Deci. "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation." Contemporary Educational Psychology 25 (2000): 54-67. Reviews contemporary thinking on the subject.

Sternberg, Robert J. Successful Intelligence. New York: Plume, 1997. A book aimed at the layperson, describing Sternberg's theory of triarchic intelligence and its practical applications.

_. The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Human Intelligence. New York:

Penguin Books, 1989. Sternberg reviews and criticizes the limitations of traditional views of intelligence and presents his own variations on that theme. The book is addressed to a general audience and contains intellectual exercises aimed at enhancing the reader's performance on cognitive tests.

Sternberg, Robert J., Torff, B., and E. L. Grigorenko. "Teaching Triarchi-cally Improves School Achievement." Journal of Educational Psychology 90 (1998): 374-384. A review of practical application of Sternberg's theory of triarchic intelligence.

Vernon, Philip Ewart. Intelligence: Heredity and Environment. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1979. Presents a thorough and thoughtful review of research on both sides of the "nature-nurture" debate on the development of intelligence. The issue of racial differences in intelligence is also discussed at length.

Susana P. Urbina; updated by Ronna F. Dillon

See also: Cognitive Psychology; Creativity and Intelligence; Giftedness; Intelligence Tests; Logic and Reasoning; Mental Retardation; Race and Intelligence.

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