Sources for Further Study

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders: DSM-IV-TR Rev. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Author, 2000. This is the official manual for the classification of mental disorders used by clinicians and researchers in a variety of settings. The manual also is used for educational purposes as disorders are described with respect to diagnostic features, cultural and age considerations, prevalence, course, and familial patterns. The language is accessible to advanced students. Berrios, German E., and Roy Porter. A History of Clinical Psychiatry: The Origin and History of Psychiatric Disorders. Washington Square: New York University Press, 1995. This book addresses the clinical and social history of mental disorders and is a good follow-up for readers interested in studying a particular type of disorder. A major theme throughout involves tracking the interaction between clinical signals of disorder, successive historical periods, and psychosocial contexts. For advanced students. Frankl, Viktor Emil. Man's Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy. New York: Insight Books, 1997. A powerful book which serves as an example of many publications that emphasize what has been called "moral treatment." Frankl's book is partly autobiographical, based on his experiences as a Jew in a German concentration camp. The book then goes on to develop some ideas related to abnormal behavior. Freud, Sigmund. The Freud Reader. Edited by Peter Gay. 1989. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995. This book offers a selection of essays and excerpts meant to give the reader an understanding of the breadth of Freud's seminal work. Topics include Freud's psychosexual theory of human development, his theory of mind, psychoanalysis, and his ideas on the arts, religion, and culture. The editor offers introductions for each selection. Good overview of a historically important thinker. Grob, Gerald N. The Mad Among Us: A History of the Care of America's Mentally Ill. New York: Free Press, 1994. This history of the care and treatment of the mentally ill in America begins with the colonial period and ends with the modern period. It is a thoughtful analysis of changing societal perceptions of moral obligation and of the historically varying policies regarding presumed effective care. Documents the contradictory policies of confinement versus community living for the disordered. Also looks at the question of whether the public need for protection overrides the needs of the individual. Written for the general reader.

Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997. An engaging book that includes a chapter on psychiatry, a short history of mental disorders covering the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries in Britain, Europe, and North America. Good discussions of the asylum movement, degeneration theory and Nazi psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern developments. Porter was a social historian of medicine whose scholarship is accessible to the general reader. There is an extensive list of sources for further reading. Highly recommended.

_. Madness: A Brief History. New York: Oxford University Press,

2002. A history of Western ideas about mental illness by one of the most respected historians of medicine. Changing ideas about "madness" help trace the evolution of psychology. Robinson, Daniel N. An Intellectual History of Psychology. 3d ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. Although mental illness as such occupies a small part of this book, it is a genuinely important book in helping to understand the philosophical and intellectual currents which have played such a major role in the psychological and scientific understanding of mental illness. A sometimes demanding book to read, it is well worth the intellectual energy for one who wants to understand various intellectual disciplines. Rosenhan, David L. "On Being Sane in Insane Places." Science 179 (January 19, 1973): 250-258. More of a "naturalistic illustration" than a scientific experiment, this article raises provocative questions and puts forth some controversial conclusions. Enjoyable reading that does not require much psychological background on the part of the reader.

James Taylor Henderson; updated by Tanja Bekhuis

See also: Psychology: Fields of Specialization; Psychosurgery; Schizophrenia: Background, Types, and Symptoms; Schizophrenia: Theoretical Explanations; Thought: Study and Measurement.

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