Sources for Further Study

Halpern, Diane F. Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 4th ed. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003. Presents a brief overview of memory and language, then presents data and theory on performance with different types of deductive arguments, analyzing arguments, fallacies, reasoning with probabilities, and hypothesis testing. The author provides numerous examples and exercises, and the text can be understood by high school or college students. Holland, John H., et al. Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Reprint. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989. Presents a broad cross-disciplinary account of induction and examines the role of inferential rules in induction, people's mental models of the world, concept formation, problem solving, and the role of induction in discovery. The authors provide an extensive bibliography of scholarly research on induction. Johnson-Laird, Philip Nicholas. Mental Models. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983. Presents an extensive review of data and theory on syllogistic reasoning. The author presents a unified theory of the mind based on recursive procedures, propositional representations, and mental models. The text is very thorough and detailed, and many readers may find it daunting.

Kahneman, Daniel, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Presents a collection of many of the important papers on heuristics, including several papers each on representativeness, availability, causality and attribution, and corrective procedures. Many of the papers are thorough and present detailed information on experiments or theory.

Kelley, David. The Art of Reasoning. 3d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998. A well-regarded introduction to classic logic. Thorough and accessible.

Sternberg, Robert J., and Talia Ben-Zeev. Complex Cognition: The Psychology of Human Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. An introduction to cognitive psychology, including explanations of the types of reasoning in theory and in practice. Synthesizes the "normative reference" and "bounded rationality" approaches to understanding human thought.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. Computer Power and Human Reason II. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1997. Provides many examples of "computer reason" and argues that some aspects of the mind cannot be explained in information-processing (computational) terms. Makes the case that computers should not be given tasks that demand human reason or wisdom. Written in an accessible and easy-to-read style.

Timothy L. Hubbard

See also: Thought: Study and Measurement.

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