Sources for Further Study

Abbott, Tina. Social and Personality Development. New York: Routledge, 2002. An introductory psychology textbook. Part 2 covers gender and gender identity development.

Bem, Sandra Lipsitz. The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993. Discusses theories about gender relations through the lenses of androcentrism (taking male experience for the norm), gender polarization (placing male and female experience at opposite ends of a cultural spectrum, with nothing in between), and biologic essentialism (using biological differences to account for cultural realities).

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. Reprint. New York: Routledge, 1999. The tenth anniversary reprint of this classic work on gender formation and transgression in American society.

Fast, Irene. Gender Identity: A Differentiation Model. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984. Reviews theories in the light of Freudian psychoanalytic theory.

Kimmel, Michael. The Gendered Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Examines gender from the positions of difference (placing "male" and "female" on a spectrum rather than opposite ends of a pole) and dominance (arguing that gender inequality causes the perception of gender difference, which in turn is used to justify inequality).

Unger, Rhoda K., ed. Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. A clinical and research handbook covering major theories, trends, and advances in the psychology of women and gender. Emphasizes multicultural issues and the impact of gender on physical and mental health.

Lesley A. Slavin

See also: Development; Hormones and Behavior; Personality Theory; Psychoanalytic Psychology and Personality: Sigmund Freud; Women's Psychology: Karen Horney; Women's Psychology: Sigmund Freud.

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