Sources for Further Study

Horney, Karen. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization. 1950. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991. Presents Horney's theory in its final form. Describes the ways in which various neurotic processes operate, including the tyranny of the should, neurotic claims, self-alienation, and self-contempt. Discusses faulty, neurotic solutions that are developed as a way to relieve internal tensions through domination, dependency, resignation, or self-effacement.

_. The Neurotic Personality of Our Time. 1937. Reprint. New York:

W. W. Norton, 1994. Outlines the manner in which culture influences personality difficulties and describes typical behavior problems that result from the exaggeration of cultural difficulties in one's life.

_. New Ways in Psychoanalysis. 1939. Reprint. New York: W. W.

Norton, 2000. Describes major areas of agreement and disagreement with Sigmund Freud as well as important elements of Horney's theory; highly controversial when first published. _. Our Inner Conflicts: A Constructive Theory of Neurosis. 1945. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993. Identifies and describes, through rich detail and examples, the three neurotic trends ofmoving toward others, moving away from others, and moving against others. Highly readable and a good introduction to Horney's main ideas. _. Self-Analysis. 1942. Reprint. New York: W. W. Norton, 1994. Provides guidance for readers who may wish to engage in informal free association, self-discovery, and personal problem solving.

Quinn, Susan. A Mind of Her Own: The Life of Karen Horney. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1988. Readable, honest, fascinating biography of Horney's life; provides insights into personal factors that influenced Horney's theoretical and clinical work. Westkott, Marcia. The Feminist Legacy of Karen Horney. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986. This book integrates Karen Horney's early papers on the psychology of women with the more complete personality theory that emerged over time.

Carolyn Zerbe Enns

See also: Individual Psychology: Alfred Adler; Psychoanalysis; Psychoanalytic Psychology and Personality: Sigmund Freud; Social Psychological Models: Erich Fromm; Women's Psychology: Karen Horney; Women's Psychology: Sigmund Freud.

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