Protozoal infection





Trichomonas vaginalis




Sexual contact, indirect contact

through fomites


As for other sexually transmitted


Improvement in general hygiene

This is a chronic infection of the genital tract of both sexes. In the female it presents with vaginitis accompanied by copious discharge; in the male, with urethritis.

The incubation period is from 1 to 3 weeks. PARASITOLOGY

The causative agent is Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan flagellate.


Microscopy of wet film preparation of vaginal or urethral discharge may show the motile organism. The organism can also be identified in stained smears.


Trichomoniasis has a worldwide dis'ribufcoa

The reservoir of infection is exclusively in humans, the infected genital discharges being the

Table 5.5: Major elements in national programmes for the control of HIV/AIDS

Health education

Control sexually transmitted diseases

Establish and manage surveillance programme

Prevent mother to child transmission

Provide and manage antiretroviral therapy

Promote community wide awareness of the problem of HIV/AIDS

Inform people how they can protect themselves against infection with emphasis on sexual abstinence and monogamous relationships

Promote safe sex including the use of male and female condoms

Promote safer habits among illegal drug users

Promote safe sexual habits (see above) Ensure access to inexpensive condoms

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases Promote voluntary counselling and testing

Collate and analyse data from sentinel sites and groups to determine trends Identify high-risk groups including commercial sex workers

General prevention of HIV infections

Voluntary screening of pregnant women

Prevent unwanted pregnancies in infected persons

Use antiretroviral therapy to protect the child and care for the mother

Give high priority to treatment of pregnant woman and her child Define feasible chemotherapeutic programme in view of the complexity of the schedules, the need for close monitoring of patients including laboratory support, and the high cost of drugs

source of infection. Transmission is by sexual intercourse or by indirect contact through contaminated clothing and other articles. Clinical manifestations occur more frequently in males than in females. The flagellate is commonly found in women during the reproductive period, and vaginal infection may be associated with lowered vaginal acidity.


Although the general principles for the control of sexually transmitted diseases apply, the main approach is the treatment of infected persons and their sexual partners. Improvement in personal hygiene is also important.

Control: As for other sexually transmitted diseases

Sulphonamides and broad-spectrum antibiotics

This is a chronic infection of the genitals which spreads to involve regional lymph nodes and the rectum. Typically it produces ulcerative lesions on the genitalia with induration of the regional lymph nodes ('climatic bubo')- Anal and genital strictures may occur at a late stage; so also may elephantiasis of the vulva. Extragenital lesions and general dissemination occasionally occur.


Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

Bacterial Vaginosis Facts

This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.

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