Kyrgyzian investigators do not have any publications under the name of CMS. Five decades ago they described a clinical picture named High Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension (HAPH), which may evolve to High Altitude Cor Pulmonale (HACP) and HF . This clinical entity is observed in people living at the high altitudes of the Tien-Shan and Pamir Mountains (2800-4200 m) and its prevalence is 4.6% in the male population. HACP is characterized by a variable degree of PH, RVH and HF in the absence of significant hypoxemia and polycythemia [1,67]. Cardiac auscultation and the findings obtained by ECG and chest-X rays resemble those found in patients with CMS [49,55,81] and adult HAHD [62,79,80].
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