The association of oxidative stress with pulmonary hypertension is increasingly recognised. Markers of oxidative stress are increased in patients with pulmonary hypertension [6,16,59]. Superoxide mediates pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation after exposure to endothe-lin-1 , and pulmonary vasoconstriction after exposure to 5-HT . Increased superoxide production from NADPH oxidase has been associated with pulmonary hypertension in foetal lambs after in-utero ductal ligation . Superoxide produced from xanthine oxidase appears to contribute to the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rodents .
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