Age

Although age is not an independent factor for nodal involvement, Sitzler et al., in a study on 805 patients all treated with radical rectal resection for rectal cancer, compared groups with the same T staging but different age, showing that the risk of nodal involvement was much higher in the patient groups younger than 45 years old (N+ being 33.3% in Tl subgroup) [9].

Fig. 1. Depth of invasion into the submucosa: sml, upper-third; sm2, middle-third; sm3, lower-third (With permission from [8])

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Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

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