These adverse effects after rectal cancer surgery on bowel function are related to sphincter or innervation damage  and the loss of rectal reservoir. The type of resection and the level of anastomosis may also play a role [49, 50]. Frequency of bowel motion, urgency, faecal leakage and incontinence are the most reported symptoms. Diarrhoea, constipation and flatus [51, 52] are also reported. Usually, these problems improve over time , but, especially in older patients, it can take a long time .
In stoma patients, there is much concern about flatus and foul odour [51, 55] but intensive pre-oper-ative education about colostomy irrigation seems to reduce the incidence of these side effects.
The incidence of diarrhoea in patients with or without a stoma seems to be equal , while constipation is a more common problem in patients undergoing APE .
The introduction of a colonic J-pouch after low AR may improve the QoL of patients  by increasing the volume of the neo-rectum . It decreases mean stool frequency without a rise in faecal incontinence or surgical complications . The use of a temporary proximal diversion is preferred by many Authors .
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Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.