Complete pre-operative coloscopy is mandatory. Information from flexible endoscopy concerning the height of rectosigmoid lesions is unreliable, therefore rigid rectoscopy is also recommended. During the rectoscopy, the lower and upper margin of the tumour and the precise position in the circumference are defined. This information is also important for the proper positioning of the patient on the operating table.
Endoluminal ultrasound is mandatory in all patients to ascertain the depth of penetration and thus the stage.
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