Tumour Depth

In the majority of studies, depth of tumour invasion through the rectal wall is considered the most important independent prognostic factor for nodal involvement. As a matter of fact the risk for N+ has been estimated from 0 to13% in T1, 12-28% in T2 and 36-79% in T3 and T4 [2, 4, 5]. Kikuchi et al. [6] have divided T1 tumours into 3 subgroups according to the level of submucosal invasion. Tlsml stands for slight submucosal layer infiltration, Tlsm2 for intermediate infiltration and Tlsm3 for whole thickness submucosa involvement [6-8]. The Tlsm3 subgroup bears a risk of lymph node metastasis estimated from 20 to 27%; this represents a contraindication to curative LE.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Whether you call it erectile dysfunction, ED, impotence, or any number of slang terms, erection problems are something many men have to face during the course of their lifetimes.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment