The contribution of clinical microbiology laboratories to the effective treatment of patients with bacterial infections depends on early and accurate identification, and rapid susceptibility testing of bacteria. The rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of the pathogens is essential for providing immediate therapeutic intervention, subsequent control of potential epidemics, and has a great impact on the outcome of individual patients especially those with systemic infections or immune disorders. Although detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms is the essence of culture-based assays in clinical microbiology; importance of quantitative measurements of pathogens has increased and extended to monitoring effectiveness of the antibiotics. Recently, quantification of pathogenic microorganisms and their activities has become almost as important as their rapid detection and identification.
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