Poor quality of PCR templates, primers, or reagents may lead to PCR failure. It is important to always include appropriate PCR controls to identify these possibilities. Some transcripts are expressed transiently or show tight lineage-specific regulation. In this regard an important caveat is that microarrays sometimes produce misleading information about gene expression levels, particularly when the inferred transcript abundance is low. False positives are relatively common when low microarray hybridization signal is observed. After switching to appropriate templates, we have obtained positive results following what initially appeared to be primer failures (Wang and Seed, 2003a).
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