Kidney Function Restoration Program

Most Effective Kidney Disease Treatment

Get Instant Access

Adam R, Del Gaudio M (2003) Evolution of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 39(6): 888-895. Allison AC, Eugui EM (2000) Mycophenolate mofetil and its mechanisms of action.

Immunopharmacology 47(2-3): 85-118. Boivin G, Gilbert C, Gaudreau A, Greenfield I, Sudlow R, Roberts NA (2001) Rate of emergence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) mutations in leukocytes of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who are receiving valganciclovir as induction and maintenance therapy for CMV retinitis. J Infect Dis 184(12): 1598-1602.

Burlingham WJ, O'Connell PJ, Jacobson LM, Becker BN, Kirk AD, Pravica V, Hutchinson IV (2000) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tumor growth factor-beta1 genotype: partial association with intragraft gene expression in two cases of long-term peripheral tolerance to a kidney transplant. Transplantation 69(7): 1527-1530.

Bustin SA (2000) Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J Mol Endocrinol 25(2): 169-193. Cai TH, Esterl RM, Jr, Nichols L, Cigarroa F, Speeg KV, Halff, GA (1998) Improved immunosuppression with combination tacrolimus (FK506) and mycophenolic acid in orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 30(4): 1413-1414. Casiraghi F, Ruggenenti P, Noris M, Locatelli G, Perico N, Perna A, Remuzzi G (1997) Sequential monitoring of urine-soluble interleukin 2 receptor and interleukin 6 predicts acute rejection of human renal allografts before clinical or laboratory signs of renal dysfunction. Transplantation 63(10): 1508-1514. Cox ED, Hoffmann SC, DiMercurio BS, Wesley RA, Harlan DM, Kirk AD, Blair PJ

(2001) Cytokine polymorphic analyses indicate ethnic differences in the allelic distribution of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6. Transplantation 72(4): 720-726.

Dadhania D, Muthukumar T, Ding R, Li B, Hartono C, Serur D, Seshan SV, Sharma VK, Kapur S, Suthanthiran M (2003) Molecular signatures of urinary cells distinguish acute rejection of renal allografts from urinary tract infection Transplantation 75(10): 1752-1754.

Detry O, de Roover A, Delwaide J, Meurisse M, Honore P (2003) The use of mycophe-nolate mofetil in liver transplant recipients. Expert Opin Pharmacother 4(11): 1949-1957.

Ding R, Li B, Muthukumar T, Dadhania D, Medeiros M, Hartono C, Serur D, Seshan SV, Sharma VK, Kapur S, Suthanthiran M (2003) CD103 mRNA levels in urinary cells predict acute rejection of renal allografts. Transplantation 75(8): 1307-1312.

Egidi MF, Gaber AO (2003) Outcomes of African-American kidney-transplant recipients treated with sirolimus, tacrolimus, and corticosteroids. Transplantation 75(4): 572; author reply 573.

Flohe S, Speidel N, Flach R, Lange R, Erhard J, Schade FU (1998) Expression of HSP 70 as a potential prognostic marker for acute rejection in human liver transplantation Transpl Int 11(2): 89-94.

Gaston RS, Hudson SL, Deierhoi MH, Barber WH, Laskow DA, Julian BA, Curtis JJ, Barger BO, Shroyer TW, Diethelm AG (1992). Improved survival of primary cadaveric renal allografts in blacks with quadruple immunosuppression. Transplantation 53(1): 103-109.

Gjertson DW, Dabrowska DM, Cui X, Cecka JM (2002) Four causes of cadaveric kidney transplant failure: a competing risk analysis. Am J Transplant 2(1): 84-93.

Hahn AB, Kasten-Jolly JC, Constantino DM, Graffunder E, Singh TP, Shen GK, Conti DJ (2001) TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 gene expression polymorphisms and the IL-4 receptor alpha-chain variant Q576R: effects on renal allograft outcome. Transplantation 72(4): 660-665.

Hardinger KL, Stratta RJ, Egidi MF, Alloway RR, Shokouh-Amiri MH, Gaber LW, Grewal HP, Honaker MR, Vera S, Gaber AO (2001) Renal allograft outcomes in African American versus Caucasian transplant recipients in the tacrolimus era. Surgery 130(4): 738-745.

Hariharan S, Johnson CP, Bresnahan BA, Taranto SE, McIntosh MJ, Stablein D (2000) Improved graft survival after renal transplantation in the United States, 1988 to 1996. N Engl J Med 342(9): 605-612.

Hartwig MS, Hall G, Hathaway D, Gaber AO (1993) Effect of organ donor race on health team procurement efforts. Arch Surg 128(2): 1331-1335.

Heeger PS (2003) What's new and what's hot in transplantation: basic science ATC 2003. Am J Transplant 3(12): 1474-1480.

Hoffmann SC, Pearl JP, Blair PJ, Kirk AD (2003) Immune profiling: molecular monitoring in renal transplantation. Front Biosci 8: e444-e462.

Hoffmann SC, Stanley EM, Cox ED, DiMercurio BS, Koziol DE, Harlan DM, Kirk AD, Blair PJ (2002) Ethnicity greatly influences cytokine gene polymorphism distribution. Am J Transplant 2(6): 560-567.

Hoffmann SC, Stanley EM, Darrin Cox E, Craighead N, DiMercurio BS, Koziol DE, Harlan DM, Kirk AD, Blair PJ (2001) Association of cytokine polymorphic inheritance and in vitro cytokine production in anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Transplantation 72(8): 1444-1450.

Hutchings A, Purcell WM, Benfield MR (1999) Peripheral blood antigen-presenting cells from African-Americans exhibit increased CD80 and CD86 expression. Clin Exp Immunol 118(2): 247-252.

Hutchinson IV (1999) The role of transforming growth factor-beta in transplant rejection. Transplant Proc 31 (7A): 9S-13S.

Hutchinson IV, Pravica V, Sinnott P (2000) Genetic regulation of cytokine synthesis: Consequence for acute and chronic organ allograft rejection. Graft 56: 281-286.

Ilyas M, Ammons JD, Gaber AO, Roy S, 3rd, Batisky DL, Chesney RW, Jones DP, Wyatt RJ (1998) Comparable renal graft survival in African-American and Caucasian recipients. Pediatr Nephrol 12(7): 534-539.

Jabs WJ, Maurmann S, Wagner HJ, Muller-Steinhardt M, Steinhoff J, Fricke L (2004) Time course and frequency of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after kidney transplantation: linkage to renal allograft rejection. J Infect Dis 190(9): 1600-1604.

Kalow W, Tang BK, Endrenyi L (1998) Hypothesis: comparisons of inter- and intra-individual variations can substitute for twin studies in drug research. Pharmacogenetics 8(4): 283-289.

Kerman RH, Kimball PM, Van Buren CT, Lewis RM, Kahan BD (1991) Stronger immune responsiveness of blacks vs whites may account for renal allograft survival differences. Transplant Proc 23(1) Pt 1: 380-382.

Koop K, Bakker RC, Eikmans M, Baelde HJ, de Heer E, Paul LC, Bruijn JA (2004) Differentiation between chronic rejection and chronic cyclosporine toxicity by analysis of renal cortical mRNA. Kidney Int 66(5): 2038-2046.

Kuehnle I, Huls MH, Liu Z, Semmelmann M, Krance RA, Brenner MK, Rooney CM, Heslop HE (2000) CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) for therapy of Epstein-Barr virus lymphoma after hemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Blood 95(4): 1502-1505.

Li B, Hartono C, Ding R, Sharma VK, Ramaswamy R, Qian B, Serur D, Mouradian J, Schwartz JE, Suthanthiran M (2001) Noninvasive diagnosis of renal-allograft rejection by measurement of messenger RNA for perforin and granzyme B in urine. N Engl J Med 344(13): 947-954.

Lindholm A, Welsh M, Alton C, Kahan BD (1992) Demographic factors influencing cyclosporine pharmacokinetic parameters in patients with uremia: racial differences in bioavailability. Clin Pharmacol Ther 52(4): 359-371.

Lo A, Egidi MF, Gaber LW, Shokouh-Amiri MH, Nazakatgoo N, Fisher JS, Gaber AO (2004) Observations regarding the use of sirolimus and tacrolimus in high-risk cadaveric renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 18(1): 53-61.

Lo A, Stratta RJ, Egidi MF, Shokouh-Amiri MH, Grewal HP, Kizilisik AT, Alloway RR, Gaber AO (2001) Outcome of simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation in African-American recipients: a case control study. Transplant Proc 33(1-2): 1675-1677.

Louis E, Franchimont D, Piron A, Gevaert Y, Schaaf-Lafontaine N, Roland S, Mahieu P, Malaise M, De Groote D, Louis R, Belaiche J (1998) Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene polymorphism influences TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccha-ride (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cell culture in healthy humans. Clin Exp Immunol 113(3): 401-406.

Marshall SE, McLaren AJ, McKinney EF, Bird TG, Haldar NA, Bunce M, Morris PJ, Welsh KI (2001) Donor cytokine genotype influences the development of acute rejection after renal transplantation. Transplantation 71(3): 469-476.

Moreno JM, Rubio E, Gomez A, Lopez-Monclus J, Herreros A, Revilla J, Navarrete E, Sanchez Turrion V, Jimenez M, Cuervas-Mons V (2003) Effectiveness and safety of mycophenolate mofetil as monotherapy in liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 35(5): 1874-1876.

Muthukumar T, Ding R, Dadhania D, Medeiros M, Li B, Sharma VK, Hartono C, Serur D, Seshan SV, Volk HD, Reinke P, Kapur S, Suthanthiran M (2003) Serine proteinase inhibitor-9, an endogenous blocker of granzyme B/perforin lytic pathway, is hyperexpressed during acute rejection of renal allografts. Transplantation 75(9): 1565-1570.

Ortiz AM, Troncoso P, Kahan BD (2003) Prevention of renal ischemic reperfusion injury using FTY 720 and ICAM-1 antisense oligonucleotides Transplant Proc 35(4): 1571-1574.

Pratschke J, Wilhelm MJ, Kusaka M, Beato F, Milford EL, Hancock WW, Tilney NL (2000) Accelerated rejection of renal allografts from brain-dead donors. Ann Surg 232(2): 263-271.

Qu L, Green M, Webber S, Reyes J, Ellis D, Rowe D (2000) Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in the peripheral blood of transplant recipients with persistent circulating virus loads. J Infect Dis 182(4): 1013-1021.

Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB, Bonsib SM, Castro MC, Cavallo T et al. (1999) The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int 55(2): 713-723.

Randhawa P (2001) Role of donor kidney biopsies in renal transplantation. Transplantation 71(10): 1361-1365.

Sabek O, Dorak MT, Kotb M, Gaber AO, Gaber L (2002) Quantitative detection of T-cell activation markers by real-time PCR in renal transplant rejection and correlation with histopathologic evaluation. Transplantation 74(5): 701-707.

Sankaran D, Asderakis A, Ashraf S, Roberts IS, Short CD, Dyer PA, Sinnott PJ, Hutchinson IV (1999) Cytokine gene polymorphisms predict acute graft rejection following renal transplantation. Kidney Int 56(1): 281-288.

Satterwhite T, Chua MS, Hsieh SC, Chang S, Scandling J, Salvatierra O, Sarwal MM (2003) Increased expression of cytotoxic effector molecules: different interpretations for steroid-based and steroid-free immunosuppression. Pediatr Transplant 7(1): 53-58.

Schwartz RH (1992) Costimulation of T lymphocytes: the role of CD28, CTLA-4, and B7/BB1 in interleukin-2 production and immunotherapy. Cell 71(7): 1065-1068.

Shoker A, George D, Yang H, Baltzan M (2000) Heightened CD40 ligand gene expression in peripheral CD4+ T cells from patients with kidney allograft rejection. Transplantation 70(3): 497-505.

Sia IG, Wilson JA, Groettum CM, Espy MJ, Smith TF, Paya CV (2000) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts relapsing CMV infection after solid organ transplantation. J Infect Dis 181(2): 717-720.

Simon T, Opelz G, Wiesel M, Ott RC, Susal C (2003) Serial peripheral blood perforin and granzyme B gene expression measurements for prediction of acute rejection in kidney graft recipients. Am J Transplant 3(9): 1121-1127.

Swanson SJ, Hypolite IO, Agodoa LY, Batty DS, Jr, Hshieh PB, Cruess D, Kirk AD, Peters TG, Abbott KC (2002) Effect of donor factors on early graft survival in adult cadaveric renal transplantation. Am J Transplant 2(1): 68-75.

Tatapudi RR, Muthukumar T, Dadhania D, Ding R, Li B, Sharma VK, Lozada-Pastorio E, Seetharamu N, Hartono C, Serur D, Seshan SV, Kapur S, Hancock WW, Suthanthiran M (2004) Noninvasive detection of renal allograft inflammation by measurements of mRNA for IP-10 and CXCR3 in urine. Kidney Int 65(6): 2390-2397.

Tornatore KM, Biocevich DM, Reed K, Tousley K, Singh JP, Venuto RC (1995) Methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics, cortisol response, and adverse effects in black and white renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 59(5): 729-736.

Tricarico C, Pinzani P, Bianchi S, Paglierani M, Distante V, Pazzagli M, Bustin SA, Orlando C (2002) Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction: normalization to rRNA or single housekeeping genes is inappropriate for human tissue biopsies. Anal Biochem 309(2): 293-300.

Turner D, Grant SC, Yonan N, Sheldon S, Dyer PA, Sinnott PJ, Hutchinson IV (1997) Cytokine gene polymorphism and heart transplant rejection. Transplantation 64(5): 776-779.

USRDS (2000) Annual data report. The National Institutes of Health, The National Institute of Digestive Diseases and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.

Verran DJ, deLeon C, Chui AK, Chapman JR (2001) Factors in older cadaveric organ donors impacting on renal allograft outcome. Clin Transplant 15(1): 1-5.

Wagner HJ, Cheng YC, Huls MH, Gee AP, Kuehnle I, Krance RA, Brenner MK, Rooney CM, Heslop HE (2004) Prompt versus preemptive intervention for EBV lympho-proliferative disease. Blood 103(10): 3979-3981.

Yates CR, Zhang W, Song P, Li S, Gaber AO, Kotb M, Honaker MR, Alloway RR, Meibohm B (2003) The effect of CYP3A5 and MDR1 polymorphic expression on cyclosporine oral disposition in renal transplant patients. J Clin Pharmacol 43(6): 555-564.

Zheng HX, Zeevi A, McCurry K, Schuetz E, Webber S, Ristich J, Zhang J, Iacono A, Dauber J, McDade K, Zaldonis D, Lamba J, Burckart GJ (2005) The impact of pharmacogenomic factors on acute persistent rejection in adult lung transplant patients. Transpl Immunol 14(1): 37-42.

Protocol 15.1: Monitoring solid organ transplant recipients for rejection


1. Urine 1.1 Urine collection

1.1.1 Urines are to be placed on ice and/or into the refrigerator immediately after obtaining sample.

1.1.2 Time collected needs to be noted on the specimen.

1.1.3 Samples need to be processed up at our earliest opportunity.

1.1.4 Log volume and appearance (cloudy, clear).

1.2 Urine processing (process within 1 h of collection).

1.2.1 Spin the total amount of urine for 5 min at 2,200 rpm.

1.2.2 Remove 1 ml urine supernatant and transfer to a 2 ml freezing vial labeled with the accession number only and identify it as urine supernatant. Freeze at -80 in box provided for viral detection study.

1.2.3 Resuspend the pellet in 1 x PBS and transfer to a 1.5 ml capped microcentrifuge tube. Spin for 2.5 min at 3,400 rpm.

1.2.4 Following the wash, remove the supernatant and resuspend in 0.5 ml 1 x PBS.

1.2.5 Mix 20 ^L of this suspension, 20 ^L Trypan Blue and 60 ^L 1 x PBS. Count the number of leukocytes present. Note the presence of epithelial cells, bacteria, etc.

1.2.6 Pellet the remaining suspension by spinning at 1,000 rpm, aspirate supernatant, either add 0.5 ml RNA later and freeze at 20°C or proceed with RNA extraction as discussed later.

2. Whole blood 2.1

Whole blood collection Three 7 ml ACD tubes are to be drawn, mixed immediately, and kept at room temperature until picked up. Check tubes for a complete name, date drawn, and second identifier, such as DOB. If there is any danger of the specimen reaching temperatures less than 60°F, pack the tubes inside a double container, preferably Styrofoam.

Specimen logging

Note the temperature of the specimen if other than RT when received. Record total volume prior to spinning; note the packed cell volume (PCV) and any hemolysis after spinning.

Specimen processing Pour all blood into a 50 ml conical tube. Note the volume then fill to the 50 mark with RPMI with 2% FCS. Mix briefly and spin at 2,200 rpm for 5 min with the brake in the OFF position.

Aspirate the supernatant to within 1/4 inch of the buffy coat. Note PCV prior to doubling the volume in increments of 10 with RPMI with 2% FCS. Mix well by rocking to break up any leukocyte clumps.

Overlay 5 ml Ficoll with 10 ml red cell suspension in a 15 ml conical tube. Spin for 30 min at 1,400 rpm with the brake on LOW.

Remove the mononuclear interface to a 15 ml conical tube containing RPMI as soon as the centrifuge stops. Top the tube off with RPMI and spin at 1,600 rpm for 5 min. Repeat this wash. Resuspend the pellet in 2 ml cold 1 x PBS and count. Specimens containing a large number of platelets should be rewashed. Note viability on the worksheet. Pellet the cells by spinning for 2.5 min at 3,400 rpm aspirate PBS and either resuspend in 0.5 ml RNA Later and freeze at -20°C or proceed with the RNA extraction.

3. Biopsy Tissue is either stored in RNA Later at -20°C

until it is processed or processed immediately


Using RNAqueous™ kit and the manual provided by Ambion

Buffer preparation: 64% ethanol: Add 38.4 ml 100% ACS grade ethanol to the bottle that contains 21.6 ml nuclease-free water (provided in the kit) for a final concentration of 64% ethanol. Wash solution 2/3: dilute the solution with 64% ml 100% ACS grade ethanol before use

1. Rinse cells once in PBS by gentle resuspension and centrifugation, to remove any RNA Later (Qiagen) solution

2. Remove PBS and add 300 uL lysis/binding solution per 106 to 107 cells. If the lysate is extremely viscous, further dilute with lysis/binding solution

3. Add an equal volume of 64% ethanol and mix well by repeated pipetting

4. Insert an RNAqueous™ filter cartridge (Ambion) into one of the RNase-free collection tubes supplied. Apply the lysate/ethanol mixture to the filter. 700 \iL is the maximum volume that can be applied at one time. It is not recommended to exceed 1,800 \iL lysate/ethanol mixture per filter

5. Centrifuge for 1 min, discard the flow-through, and reuse the tube for the washing steps.

6. Wash the filter cartridge with 700-pL wash solution #1 (provided in kit), centrifuge for 1 min, discard the flow-through, and reuse the tube for the subsequent washes

7. Wash the filter cartridge twice with 500-pL wash solution #2/3, centrifuge for 1 min, and discard the flow-through, centrifuge for an extra 2 min to remove any traces of wash solution

8. Transfer filter cartridge to fresh collection tube. Add 25 pL of elution solution to the center of the filter. Incubate the tube with cartridge in a heat block set at 65-70°C, for 10 min. Recover the elute by centrifuging for 1 min

9. To maximize recovery of RNA, repeat step 7, except do not transfer the cartridge to a fresh collection tube

10. To measure optical density, take 10 pL of the eluted RNA and add 90 uL of DEPC water. Measure the absorbance at 260 nm using the GeneQuant Pro spectrophotometer (Amersham Pharmacia Biotechnology)

DNase treatment using DNA-free™ kit and the manual provided by


Use individually wrapped tubes and tips.

1. Add 0.1 volume** of 10X DNase 1 buffer and 1 uL of DNase 1-(2 units) to the RNA. Mix gently and incubate at 37°C for 20-30 min

2. Add 0.1 volume or 5 pL, whichever is greater, of the resuspended DNase inactivation reagent to the sample and mix well

3. Incubate for 2 min at room temperature.

4. Centrifuge the tube for 1 min to pellet the DNase inactivation reagent

5. RNA should be stored at -80°C until used

** Volume means 0.1X the amount of RNA


1. TaqMan® probes and primers.

a. Probes and primers for the gene of interest are designed using the Primer Express® software (PE Applied Biosystems, CA, USA).

b. All primer pairs were designed to produce amplicons smaller than 150 bp

2. Preparing TaqMan® probes from ABI already resuspended at 100 pM.

a. A dilution of 1/20 is made to give a 5pM solution b. Aliquot the probe solution and store in the dark at 20°C. It is not recommended to thaw and freeze more than twice

3. The primers arrive lyophilized with the amount given on the tube in pmols (such as 150.000 pmol which is equal to 150 nmol).

a. If X nmol of primer is resuspended in XpL of H2O, the resulting solution is

1 mM

b. Freeze this stock solution in aliquots c. When the 1 mM stock solution is diluted 1/100, the resulting working solution will be 10 pM

d. To get the recommended 50-900 nM final primer concentration in 50 pL

reaction volume, 0.25-4.50 |L should be used per reaction (2.5 |L for 500 nM final concentration)

The pre-developed (PDAR) primers and probes are supplied as a mix in one tube. It is recommended to use 2.5 |L in a 50 |L reaction volume.

4. Setting up one-step TaqMan® reaction

Using the TaqMan® EZ RT-PCR kit (PE Applied Biosystems) and the manual provided a) Prepare a reagent mix containing all the PCR components except target RNA. Preparing a reagent mix is recommended in order to increase the accuracy of the results

Reagent mix

RNase-free H2O

5X TaqMan® EZ buffer

Manganese acetate (25 mM)

rTth DNA Polymerase (2.5 U/|L)

Total mix

Target RNA

Volume for one sample Final concentration

14.5 uL [18 uL For 10.0 ||L 6.0 |L 1.5 |L 1.5 |L 1.5 |L 1.5 |L 2.5 |L 2.5 |L 1.0 |L 0.25 |L 0.5 |L 45 |L 5 |L


3 mM 300 |M 300 |M 300 |M 600 |M 500 nM 500 nM 100n M 0.1 U/|L 0.01 U/|L

* If a PDAR is used, 2.5 |L of primer + probe mix used b) Amplification of the target genes tested and the 18S RNA is to be performed in duplicate in the same plate c) In each plate a non-template control (for each reagent mixture) will be run to test for any primer-dimmer or contamination d) In the case of using an absolute standard curve or relative standard curve, the standard must be run in duplicate in each plate e) The program consists of heating at 50°C for 2 min, 60°C for 30 min, and 95°C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of a two-

stage temperature profile of 94°C for 20 sec and 62°C for 1 min f) Accumulation of the PCR products is detected by directly monitoring the increase in fluorescence of the reporter dye g) Data points collected in this manner are analyzed at the end of thermal cycling

5. Analyzing and interpreting the results a) Save the run before it starts by giving it a name (not as untitled). Also at the end of the run, first save the data before starting to analyze b) The choice of dye component should be made correctly before data analysis. Example; if the probe is labeled with FAM and VIC is chosen there will be some result but the wrong one c) When analyzing the data ensure that the default setting for baseline is 3-15. If any Ct value is <15, the baseline should be changed accordingly (the baseline stop value should be 1-2 smaller than the smallest Ct value)

d) A threshold for the amplification of each gene of interest is set by drawing a line that intersects the exponential phase of the logarithmic amplification curves for all samples being analyzed for expression of target gene (A threshold line should be drawn above the background noise and below the plateau region). The cycle number at which the threshold line intersects the linear curve for each sample is used to determine the threshold cycle (Ct) value e) Rn+ is the Rn value of a reaction containing all components; Rn- is the Rn value of an unreacted sample (baseline value or the value detected in NTC). ARn is the difference between Rn+ and Rn-. It is an indicator of the magnitude of the signal generated by the PCR

Final quantification can be done by any method. For the purposes of renal transplant monitoring relative quantification methods are satisfactory (see Chapters 2, 3, 6, and 7).

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment