Natural Facial Redness Cure and Treatment

Rosacea Free Forever Cure By Laura Taylor

Laura Taylor, the author of Rosacea Free Forever is an Alternative Medical Practicioner and Researcher and was also a long term sufferer of chronic Rosacea. After a 12 year battle with Rosacea, she became frustrated at the lack of straightforward, simple and honest information available and so took the decision to write this book. You will get an all-natural remedy, which can help clear up nearly every type of rosacea such as semi-permanent rosacea, rhinophyma (swollen, red, and bulbous-like nose), telangiectasia, superficial swelling of all blood vessels on the face, scalp rosacea, rosacea on the chest or neck, and facial rosacea. Rosacea Free Forever provides you answers to practical, homemade and natural solutions, that any person residing anywhere around the globe can very easily perform! It is going to be possible to discover the secrets to treat your rosacea, and as always you should consult your doctor to see if this is the right rosacea treatment for you. Continue reading...

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B5 Skin Telangiectasia and Atrophy

Telangiectasia or dilatations of the dermal vasculature that lie within a few millimeter of the epidermis can occur following radiation for breast cancer. Several studies examining post-mastectomy radiation have demonstrated that the incidence of telangiectasia is affected by total radiation dose,84'85'87 larger fraction size,81'84 and the occurrence of moist desquamation.85-87 The Gothenburg fractionation trials conducted during post-mastectomy radiation in Sweden in the 1970s examined the effect of radiation dose, fraction size, and doserate on the development of telangiectasia (as a measure of late skin reaction) following radiation with 12-13 MeV electrons.83'84 These studies used patients as their own control comparing effects on the right versus left irradiated parasternal region. At greater than 5 years of follow-up, the frequency of mild, moderate, and severe telangiectasia was 79 , 49 , and 20 , respectively, for 2.61 Gy delivered daily 5 times per week for 21 fractions...

Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus


All forms of cutaneous lupus may manifest photosensitivity. Cases with acute SLE may present with the characteristic butterfly facial rash in addition to constitutional symptoms, whereas subacute cutaneous lupus occurs in about 10 of patients with lupus erythematosus. Common skin presentations include an annular scaly erythematous, psoriasiform rash involving light-exposed areas, which may present abruptly, extensor surfaces of arms, dorsa of hands, V of chest and upper back and face. Patients may also manifest a diffuse nonscarring alopecia. The treatment of choice is topical steroids in mild cases but systemic therapy with antimalarials, corticosteroids, Figure 9.27 Berloque dermatitis from a gardening holiday. Phytophotodermatitis with erythema and severe blistering Figure 9.27 Berloque dermatitis from a gardening holiday. Phytophotodermatitis with erythema and severe blistering and immunosupressants is usually required. Chronic forms of discoid LE present with weeks-to-months...

Clinical Findings and Diagnosis

The clinical picture of cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been reviewed by Chopra and Vega-Lopez (1999). The bite of a sandfly may induce an inflammatory papular or nodular lesion of prurigo but it may go unnoticed for several weeks. The incubation period can be as short as 15 days but commonly it is estimated at around 4-6 weeks. Certain forms may take longer to develop clinically. A nonhealing papule with surrounding erythema and pain may also indicate superimposed bacterial infection, which subsequently develops ulceration. On average, 6-8 weeks after the sandfly bite a violaceous nodule with or without nodular borders starts enlargement and ulceration. The ulcer is partially or completely covered by a thick crust that, after curettage, reveals a haemorrhagic

Social phobia social anxiety disorder

Social phobia (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) is characterised by a marked or persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to the possible scrutiny of others (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The individual fears that he or she will act in a way or show anxiety symptoms that will be humiliating or embarrassing. For example, some patients with hyperhydrosis and rosacea often perspire or blush more prominently in embarrassing situations and may develop a social phobia as a result. Exposure to the feared social situation almost always provokes anxiety, which may take the form of a situationally bound panic attack, which in turn also results in an exaggerated autonomic reactivity of the skin. In social phobia the individual recognises that the fear is excessive or unreasonable however, intense anxiety results if the feared situation is not avoided. The anxious anticipation or distress of the feared...

Other Bacterial Infections in the Traveller

Tropical seaborne infections by halophilic Vibrio vulnificus can produce localised or systemic disease manifested by acute and painful erythema, purpura, oedema, and necrosis, particularly affecting the lower limbs. Cases of returning travellers presenting in inland metropolitan areas can be very difficult to diagnose and these patients carry a high mortality risk. Fatal septicaemia manifests with coalescing purpuric patches on one or both lower limbs that subsequently spread to the periumbilical region (Figure 9.13). The infection is acquired by direct traumatic inoculation in estuaries and seawaters, or by ingestion of raw seafood, particularly oysters. Male individuals with a history of liver disease and iron overload states are the group at highest risk for this infection (Serrano-Jaen and Vega-Lopez, 2000). Severe cases require immediate referral to a specialist hospital phys

Systemic Mycosis Manifesting on the Skin

This systemic mycosis presents a risk particularly for the immunocompromised traveller. The skin becomes involved in a small proportion of cases and lesions manifest as erythematous, verrucous, or scaling nodules on the face, upper limbs, or on the plantar surface or any other part of the foot. A history of exposure in endemic regions followed by an episode of erythema nodosum supports the diagnostic possibility. Other investigations such as serology, chest X-rays, and culture for the isolation of the organism confirm the diagnosis. Culture of agents causing systemic mycoses should only be carried out in specialized laboratories, as they represent a serious biological hazard. Systemic therapeutic options for coccidioidomycosis include amphotericin B and triazole compounds.

Phytophotodermatitis Berloque

Figure 9.28 Erythema multiforme and photosensitivity during a beach holiday. Erytematous, urticated and blistering lesions with a photorreactive pattern on the forearms Figure 9.28 Erythema multiforme and photosensitivity during a beach holiday. Erytematous, urticated and blistering lesions with a photorreactive pattern on the forearms of photosensitising chemicals present in several plant families, e.g. lime, lemon, wild parsley, celery, giant hog-weed, parsnip, carrot and fig, plus plant oils such as bergamot used in perfumes or aromatherapy. Gardening holidays represent a risk for travellers (Figure 9.27). Complex clinical presentations of erythema multiforme reveal a photosensitive pattern on exposed areas of the skin (Figure 9.28). Phytophotodermatitis manifests as an acute eruption of erythema, vesicles and bullae. These are often in a bizarre distribution, indicating an exogenous cause for the rash. Taking a careful history makes the diagnosis and the acute picture responds to...

Drugrelated Skin Diseases

Drug reactions occur worldwide but may coincide with a trip to the tropics, and in some cases result from sun exposure. A variety of medicines induce moderate-to-severe reactions and the patient's history often identifies the use of antibiotics, carbamazepine, sulphonamides, diuretics, or -blockers. More than three-quarters of all patients with drug reactions present with erythema (rash) and or urticaria (Figure 9.33). Other severe forms of drug reaction include erythema multiforme and toxicodermias. Specialised management in hospital is required for all severe cases, as mortality can be high for toxic epidermal necrolysis (Brocq-Lyell syndrome) (Figure 9.34) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The finding of vasculitis presenting with purpura (Figure 9.35) or severe exfoliation with hyperpigmented lesions and epidermal detachment indicate systemic illness due to a drug reaction. Figure 9.33 Acute urticaria from drugs, showing large erythematous wheals lasting for a few hours in a recurring...

Gangrene and necrotising fasciitis

E Gangrene The painful area is usually the erythematous region around the gangrenous tissue, with the latter black because of haemoglobin breakdown products, dead and insensate. The junction between the live and dead tissue is known as the line of demarcation. In wet gangrene, the tissue becomes boggy and there may be associated pus, with a strong odour caused by anaerobes. In gas gangrene, spreading infection and destruction of tissues and muscle causes overlying oedema, discoloration and crepitus due to gas formation by the infection. Necrotising fasciitis Area of erythema and oedema, areas of haemorrhagic blisters may be present with crepitus on palpation. Associated signs of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis temperature 38 C or 36 C, tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypotension.

Gastrooesophageal reflux disease

Endoscopy Upper GI endoscopy, biopsy and cytological brushings to confirm the presence of oesophagitis, to grade its severity, to exclude the possibility of malignancy. Severity of reflux is graded by the modified Savary-Millar (1 erythema, 2 isolated erosions, 3 confluent erosions or superficial ulcers without stenosis, 4 erosions or deep ulceration, stricture formation). Barium swallow Can show structural abnormalities (e.g. hiatus hernia, stricture).

Tgfpbased Immunotherapy For Cancer

For the sake of simplicity, we divide the etiology of autoimmune-like disease into thymic origin and or peripheral tissue origin (76,81,82). Many reports implicated TGF-P in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-like disease. Systemic administration of TGF-P suppressed the symptoms of experimental encephalomyelitis, whereas antibodies to TGF-P enhanced the disease (82,83). Mice null for TGF-P 1 developed autoimmune-like syndrome, including enhanced expression of MHC class I and II antigens, circulating systemic lupus erythema-tosus (SLE)-like IgG antibodies to nuclear antigens, pathogenic glomerular IgG deposits, and progressive infiltration of lymphocytes into multiple organs (84,85). Development of autoimmunity is normally resulted in selection processes in the thymus or through mechanisms that maintain tolerance in peripheral tissues. In the thymus, negative selection takes place at the CD4+ CD8+ double-positive stage (86). Because TGF-P regulates the maturation of these double-positive...

Technique of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing

After re-epithelialisation it is again important to keep the treated area moist. Most patients elect to use a combined moisturising concealer preparation until the erythematous phase of the treatment (lasting anything up to three months from the time of laser treatment) has settled. It is essential that the patient treats the newly resurfaced skin very carefully, rather like a baby's skin. Direct sunlight must be Most post operative problems, assuming that laser treatment has been appropriately undertaken, result from poor skin care. Redness or erythema is to be expected and may take up to three months or more to settle. Hyper- or rarely hypo-pigmentation can occasionally occur. The former can be managed with topical skin bleaching agents or steroid preparations but there is relatively little that can be offered for hypo-pigmentation.

Diagnostic Utility

Anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies can be useful in making a diagnosis of erythema chronicum migrans (associated with Lyme disease). European authors have also found the antibody helpful in confirming the etiologies in cases of morphea, lymphocytoma, and lichen sclerosis and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (16,18). American authors have not shared this experience.

Ulcerative colitis continued

Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage, toxic megacolon, perforation, colonic carcinoma (in those with extensive disease for 10 years), gallstones and PSC. Extra-gastrointestinal manifestations (10-20 ) Uveitis, renal calculi, arthropathy, sacroiliitis, ankylosing spondylitis, erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum, osteoporosis (from steroid treatment), amyloidosis.

Molecular Genetics Of Radiosensitiv1ty

Genetics of radiosensitivity is currently developing rapidly following two important developments. First, it was realised that a number of inherited human syndromes, especially Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) have an associated increased radiosensitivity. Cells from these patients were intensively investigated and the critical AT gene has been identified and sequenced (Savitsky 1995). Secondly, there was the production of radiosensitive mutants of in vitro rodent cell lines, especially xrs mutants from Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of the genes that have been mutated was identified, XRCC5 (Rathmell 1994). The human DNA sequence that complements this defect has been found and was the first human ionising-radiation-sensitivity gene to be identified, XRCCI (Thompson 1990). This search has gone in the context of the rapid identification of genes that control DNA repair. The unravelling of its molecular genetics is going on in bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell systems, facilitated by the...

Bacterial Infections Pyogenic Infections Aetiology and Pathogenesis

Superficial Skin Excoriation

Figure 9.8 Folliculitis on lower limbs. Erythematous and excoriated follicular papules Figure 9.8 Folliculitis on lower limbs. Erythematous and excoriated follicular papules Figure 9.9 Impetigo in a returning traveller. Plaques with erythema and yellowish thin crust showing superficial excoriation Figure 9.9 Impetigo in a returning traveller. Plaques with erythema and yellowish thin crust showing superficial excoriation Figure 9.10 Cellulitis on the leg of an elderly traveller. Localised plaque of shiny erythematous skin with dermal thickening Figure 9.10 Cellulitis on the leg of an elderly traveller. Localised plaque of shiny erythematous skin with dermal thickening by the pathogenic action of proteases, haemolysins, lipoteichoic acid, and coagulases. Erythrogenic toxins are responsible for the erythema commonly observed in infections by Streptococcus spp (Bisno and Stevens, 1996).

Parenteral iron therapy

Disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is present. It is also occasionally necessary in gluten-induced enteropathy and when it is essential to replete body stores rapidly (e.g. where severe iron deficiency anaemia is first diagnosed in late pregnancy), or when oral iron cannot keep pace with continuing haemorrhage (e.g. in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia). Patients with chronic renal failure who are being treated with recombinant erythropoietin are also likely to require parenteral iron therapy. In this situation, the demand for iron by the expanded erythron may outstrip the ability to mobilize iron from stores, leading to a 'functional' iron deficiency. Increased red cell loss at dialysis contributes to iron needs and oral iron therapy is usually inadequate to prevent an impaired response to erythropoietin. The use of ' hypochromic cells' for detection of functional iron deficiency is discussed on p. 36.

Return Of The Scientific Methodthe Charge For The Future

Brauner (205,207) in 1990 showed that equivalently dosed copper vapor laser was more effective than continuous wave dye laser or argon laser on side-by-side test areas of port-wine stain after one treatment. In 1993 Waner et al. (208) compared two yellow lasers, the copper vapor and pulsed dye, for facial telangiectases. Upon side-by-side comparison the former laser healed more quickly and was more cosmetically acceptable to the patients but both gave equivalent clinical improvement. In 1995 Dover et al. (186) compared port-wine stains treated with hexascan-assisted continuous dye laser with those treated with matched side-by-side pulsed dye laser and found both lasers effective, with the pulsed dye more so. A minimal and equivalent side effect profile for both sites was shown. Waldorf et al. (197) compared dynamically cooled sites with uncooled sites on pulsed dye laser-treated paired sites in port-wine stains, illustrating the epidermal sparing and pain relief effects of this...

The Gjm Dna Damage Checkpoint

At the stage of signal transmission, the molecular role of some of these proteins in the operation of the DNA damage checkpoint becomes much more clear. A number of proteins (including rad proteins) that are essential for the damage checkpoint have clearly defined biochemical functions that link them in a series of defined reactions to modulation of Cdc2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Several of these proteins encode protein kinases (rad3 and Chkl), while others (rad24 and rad25) encode l4-3-3 proteins, a class of small signaling molecules that bind their targets in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. When cells incur DNA damage, Chkl becomes phosphorylated and its activity as a kinase is increased. In S. pombe, this activation of Chkl is dependent on one of the rad proteins, rad3, though it is not clear whether the phosphorylation of Chkl is directly catalyzed by rad3. Intriguingly, rad3 is similar at the sequence level to ATM, mutations in which lead to development of the disease ataxia...

Clinical features

Dat Cold Agglutinins

Cold haemagglutinin disease is mainly seen in older people and runs a chronic course. Although the condition is mostly benign, the clinical features may be very distressing and disabling. Purplish skin discoloration, maximal over the extremities (acrocyanosis), may be present in cold weather. Acrocyanosis is due to stasis in the peripheral circulation secondary to red cell agglutination. On warming the skin, the colour returns to normal or there is transient erythema. This sequence distinguishes acrocyanosis from Raynaud's syndrome. Haemolysis is usually present and the patient may be mildly icteric. Occasionally, haemolysis dominates the clinical picture, depending on the ability of the antibody to activate complement on the red cell surface. The cold agglutinins are monoclonal IgGK, but serum

Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma In Hla Identical Sibs

Ohta S, Katsura T, Shimada M, Shima A, Chishiro H, Matsubara H. Ataxia-telangiectasia with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986 8(3) 255-257. 46. Swift M, Reitnauer PJ, Morrell D, Chase CL. Breast and other cancers in families with ataxia-telangiectasia. N Engl J Med 1987 316(21) 1289-1294. 47. Borresen AL, Andersen TI, Tretli S, Heiberg A, Moller P. Breast cancer and other cancers in Norwegian families with ataxia-telangiectasia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1990 2(4) 339-340.

Cancer Predisposition Syndrome Associated Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer has been anecdotally reported in association with a number of other cancer-predisposing syndromes including ataxia telangiectasia (AT) 41 , Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 42 , and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Systematic studies have, however, failed to show that PTC forms part of the spectrum of HNPCC 43,44 . Similarly, a systematic study of Peutz-Jeghers patients did not show an increased risk of thyroid cancer 45 . In a study of 110 AT families reported by Swift et al. 46 , a 2.7-fold increase in risk of thyroid cancer was seen in AT

Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis

There are three distinct types ofMORN (Table 14), but all begin similarly as erythema of overlying mucosa, which subsequently ulcerates to reveal the underlying necrotic bone.5 The diagnosis ofMORN includes an appropriate clinical picture supported by consistent bone scan, CT and or MRI findings. Recurrent tumor should be ruled out.

Diagnosis of superimposed preeclampsia in chronic hypertension renal disease and diabetes

Chronic hypertension is subdivided into essential and secondary due to underlying causes such as renal disease (e.g. glomerulonephritis, reflux nephropathy, adult polycystic kidney disease), systemic disease with renal complications (e.g. systemic lupus erythema-tosus, diabetes), renal artery stenosis or endocrine disorders (e.g. cushings, phaeochromocytoma) (Brown et al., 2000).

Combined immunodeficiency

A number of rare inherited defects significantly compromise both humoral and cellular immunity but do not usually lead to early death from severe infection (Table 22.1). These include defects in CD40 ligand (HIM-1), ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and other defects in DNA repair systems, and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). A predisposition to cancer, particularly lymphoma, occurs in many of these syndromes. In WAS, the clinical features range from thrombocytopenia alone to a severe disease characterized by recurrent infection, severe eczema and B-cell lymphoma at an early age. Patients with ataxia telangiectasia usually die before the third decade from progressive ataxia and or tumours, often compounded by recurrent infections due to an associated antibody deficiency. The mutated gene (ATM) is involved in cell cycle regulation and also appears to be a tumour suppressor, as it is frequently deleted in prolymphocytic and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells. Another gene involved in...

Cell and molecular biology

Activated FANCD2 protein collocalizes and co-purifies with the breast cancer susceptibility protein, BRCA1, a protein that is important in many DNA damage-response pathways. These nuclear foci appear in cells after DNA damage and in those cells undergoing DNA replication. Proteins such as the recombination molecule RAD51, and those in the RAD50-NBS1-MRE11 DNA repair pathway are also present in BRCA1-containing foci (NBS1, complex Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 MRE11, meiotic recombination 11). In cells from A, C, E, F or G patients, FANCD2 ubiquitination is not observed and it is not targeted to nuclear foci. ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) can phos-phorylate both FANCD2 and BRCA1. The ATM-dependent phosphorylation of FANCD2 (at serine 222) occurs in response to ionizing radiation. Therefore, this puts FANCD2 in a central position in signalling DNA damage double-strand DNA breaks caused by ionizing radiation result in ATM-dependent phos-phorylation of FANCD2 at serine 222, whereas...

Sunrelated Skin Diseases And Cancer

Appearance Kaposi Sarcoma

Many dermatoses may be provoked by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and they may be acute or chronic. In addition, a number of other dermatoses may be exacerbated by exposure to sunlight these include acne, atopic eczema, dermatomyositis, erythema multiforme, herpes simplex, Darier disease, lichen planus, autoimmune blistering disorders, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrhoeic dermatitis. Some of the more common problems included in this section are presented in Table 9.4. Figure 9.25 Molluscum contagiosum in a child. Umbilicated and erythematous whitish millimetric papules on the trunk and upper limb Figure 9.25 Molluscum contagiosum in a child. Umbilicated and erythematous whitish millimetric papules on the trunk and upper limb

Causes of iron deficiency Table

Oesophageal varices, hiatus hernia, peptic ulcer, aspirin ingestion, hookworm, hereditary telangiectasia, carcinoma of the stomach, caecum or colon, ulcerative colitis, angiodysplasia, Meckel's diverticulum, diverticulosis, haemorrhoids, etc. Haematuria (e.g. renal or bladder lesion), haemoglobinuria (e.g. paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria) Overt haemoptysis, idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Lasers in oculoplastic surgery

The Erbium YAG laser delivers increased tissue ablation with co-incidental reduction of adjacent thermal damage when compared to the carbon dioxide laser. This results in reduced tissue damage, erythema and post operative inflammation. The major disadvantages of the erbium YAG are lack of coagulation, so that it is not suitable for incisional surgery, and lack of contractile

Past Approaches

After demonstrating that immunostimulatory molecules could transform cancer cells to activate a tumor-directed immune response,87 Simons et al. developed the first gene therapy clinical trial protocol for prostate cancer. In this study, eight men with metastatic prostate cancer discovered during radical prostatectomy were administered autologous, ex vivo GM-CSF transduced, irradiated cancer vaccines. Unfortunately, due to the large number of ex vivo manipulations, the vaccination rate decreased, from the original enrollment number of eleven men to eight. Side effects were limited to pruritis, erythema, and swelling at the site of vaccination. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to untransduced autologous prostate cancer cells were positive in seven of the eight men, demonstrating the ability to mount a T cell response. Furthermore, new antibodies against prostate cancer polypeptides were discovered in the sera of three of the eight men, suggesting a B cell response to...


This is an acute delayed transient response to UV radiation and the clinical features are easily identified by travellers. These include erythema and tenderness, but severe cases manifest with blistering, oedema and pain. Systemic symptoms of headache and malaise are common. Prevention with adequate sunscreens is most important. The acute treatment consists of topical cor-ticosteroids, cool wet dressings, systemic aspirin, and bed rest away from direct, reflected, or refracted sunlight.


These reactions are less common and can also affect all skin types but occur in sensitised individuals only. The main clinical feature is an eczematous reaction with erythema, scaling and lichenification, primarily on sun-exposed sites but may extend locally to nonexposed skin. Topically applied photosensitisers are the most common cause, e.g. benzocaine, musk in aftershave, 6-methyl-coumarin in sunscreens. Systemic drugs may also cause a photoallergic reaction, e.g. phenothiazines, halogenated salicylamides, and sulphonamides.

Cercarial Dermatitis

The initial clinical feature is that of tingling on contact with the water, followed up to an hour later with a fine diffuse macular erythema of exposed areas. After 10-15 h a more florid itchy papular eruption develops, which may evolve into vesicles. More severe reactions occur in previously sensitised individuals. The reaction settles spontaneously after about a week, with no long-term sequelae. Symptomatic treatment can be achieved by antihista-mines.


Focal laser ablation of acne scars was one of the earliest procedures performed by cutaneous laser surgeons in the early 1980s. Although the freehand airbrush technique could be performed on tattoos and still leave a cosmetically acceptable scar on the trunk and extremities, the artistry required made laser resurfacing of large areas of acne scarring or rhytids on the face potentially more hazardous than dermabrasion. It was especially worrisome because the latter healed within a 2-week time frame while laser wound healing was prolonged often beyond the 2-week window of healing after which unsightly scars could develop. Though scanners had been coupled earlier to the CO2 laser for gynecologic cervical ablation, only in 1982 did Brauner and Schliftman first introduce to the USA the Sharplan microslad scanner (182) which allowed precise controllable movement of the beam in an X- Y grid pattern with uniform though Gaussian ablation. Such uniformity not only led to better results in...

AIDSrelated lymphoma

It has long been recognized that patients with both inherited and acquired abnormalities of cellular immunity have an increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases, such as ataxia telangiectasia or the Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome, is approximately 100 times greater than expected NHL in allograft recipients has an incidence 60 times that of the general population. In a similar way to these patients, individuals infected with HIV have defective cellular immunity and are thus at risk of developing B-cell malignancy, which is recognized as an AIDS-defining diagnosis. Both systemic and cerebral NHL occur in this population with the relative risk being approximately 100-fold higher than that expected in the general population.

Argon Laser

Port Wine Stain Pattern

What the argon laser allowed for the first time was a therapy for widespread telan-giectasia that was sensible in that destruction proceeded from the vessel outward rather than from the surface of the skin inward as by electrodesiccation or electrofulguration, then the standard treatment. In practice, with early argon laser surgical techniques there was thin second-degree burn injury involving the papillary dermis and the entire epidermis. Still, since the maximal energy dissipation was in the vessel itself rather than on the surface of the skin it seemed more reliable particularly for more deeply situated and resistant spider angiomas and for treating networks of fine vessels extending over large areas of the cheeks as in extensive rosacea. For congenital port-wine stain this treatment was miraculous. Ten percent of patients could expect entire clearance of their vascular malformation and 75 of the remaining patients would have dramatic and long-lasting or permanent and significant...


Some of the other psychiatric syndromes in dermatology include OCD which may manifest as repetitive hand washing or bathing, trichotillomania, onychophagia, neurotic excoriations or an excessive concern about a minor or imagined 'defect' in the skin. Social phobia or social anxiety disorder can be a feature of a wide range of cosmetically disfiguring conditions or conditions that become more visible when the patient is autonomically aroused such as rosacea and hyperhydrosis. PTSD is


The host immune system is capable of recognizing and eliminating malignant cells however, the ability of tumor cells to evade immune surveillance and the inefficiency of the body's antitumor response allows prostate cancer to persist and progress. To develop a tumor vaccine, prostate cancer cells are harvested from the patient during radical prostatectomy, transfected with cytokines that upregulate cell surface antigens, such as B7 or MHC class I and II, expanded in culture, and irradiated to kill the cells. After infusion of the autologous vaccine cells, the enhanced immunogenicity of the cells aids the immune system to mount a local or systemic immune response to the cancer (200,201). The first prostate vaccine clinical trial was developed by Simons et al. In this study, eight men with metastatic prostate cancer were administered autologous, GM-CSF-transduced, irradiated cancer vaccines. Side effects were limited to pruritis, erythema, and swelling at the site of vaccination. Both...


In the early 1990s within a decade of the marriage of surgeon and industry serendipity reminded us that not all laser developments are predetermined rationally. In 1993, Alster reported that, when treating hypertrophic, persistently red scars for the erythema with a pulsed dye laser, she obtained not just improvement of the erythema but a distinct textural improvement, so much so that the scars flattened, occasionally dramatically, after several sessions (299). At first argon laser induced scars, then hypertrophic scars of other cause, facial acne scars, and even keloidal sternotomy scars responded. When Alster considered atrophic scars she found a similar result. The scar texture improved to the eye. The scar became less depressed and the surface was demonstrably changed on skin surface topographic textural analysis by optical profilometry, erythema reflectance spectrometry, scar height measurements, and pliability scores (300-306). The pulsed dye laser rapidly became an instrument...

Erbium YAG laser

Although useful in assessing the depth of treatment, is a limiting factor when undertaking deeper resurfacing. The recovery, in particular the duration of post operative erythema, with erbium YAG resurfacing is significantly reduced compared to the carbon dioxide laser and this appears to be its major advantage.

Acute Skin Effects

Acute skin reactions associated with radiation include erythema, dry desquamation, hyperpigmentation, and moist desquamation (Table 1).14 All patients do not experience all acute skin reactions. However, there may be a combination of reactions occurring Erythema Bright erythema, sloughing skin,

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