Coracohumeral Ligament

Delamination Tear Rotator Cuff

The coracohumeral ligament (CHL) is a trapezoidal ligament located in the superior part of the shoulder capsule (on its nonarticulating surface) and runs parallel to and is closely overlaid by the CAL. It is present in fetal development by 14-wk gestation as a small band of tissue between the CHL and the CAL. The origin of the CHL is at the most posterior point on the lateral aspect of the coracoid process base (deep relative to the origin of the CAL). It appears as a broad band (2.5 cm wide)...

Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament

Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament

In 1981, Turkel et al. described the IGHL as a structure attached to the inferior, anterior, and posterior margins of the glenoid labrum just below the epiphyseal line and the humeral neck 42 . In fetal development, the IGHL is present by 14-wk gestation and appears as several layers of poorly organized collagen fibers, which are better organized than their surrounding capsular structure. With gestational time, the amount of fibrous tissue increases while the cellularity decreases 14,43 . The...

Koch Mason Suture For Tendon

Horizontal Mattress Suture Tendon Repair

Recovering function after a tendon injury to the hand continues to remain a challenge in clinical practice. Although suturing the two ends of a severed tendon may seem to be the most intuitive method today, tendon lacerations have been controversial for two centuries. Various researchers in both clinical and experimental fields have held contrasting views on all aspects of tendon injuries, from physiology of the normal tendon and its response to injury to the timing and technique of repair and...

Tendon Rehabilitation

Zone Five Flexor Tendon Injury Exercise

The ultimate goal of flexor tendon repair is to restore normal digital function. Historically, repaired flexor tendons were treated with immobilization (161). This produced a strong repair but also led to uncontrolled tendon adhesion, loss of tendon gliding, secondary joint contracture, and unsatisfactory digital function. Scientific and clinical research since this time has demonstrated the beneficial effects of applying early controlled stress to the healing tendon (43,45,49,160,176)....