Self Esteem: Simple Steps to Develop Self-worth

The Rise Of You

The Rise Of You

Learn how instantly boost your confidence and quickly change a negative outlook. This ebook will reveal how you can find so much confidence inside yourself that you will be able to be the person you have always wanted to be and do the things you most want to do. You will learn what true self-confidence is and how to nurture yourself so that you stop the habits that sabotage you and start building the mindset that will grow your self-confidence.

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Quantum Confidence

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Author: Song Chengxiang
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The impact of skin conditions on selfesteem

It is hard for a child to grow up with a skin condition and for this not to have some impact on their self-esteem. However, the variation in the impact on self-esteem cannot be entirely attributed to the severity of the child's condition, because it is very dependent on psychological factors and the child's beliefs about their condition. It is possible for a child with very damaged skin to report high levels of self-esteem and vice versa for a young person with very trivial skin blemishes to report a considerable impact on self-esteem. Self-esteem has been most studied in relation to acne and studies have clearly demonstrated that adolescents with acne do have lower self-esteem than non-affected adolescents (Papadopoulos et al., 2000 Smith, 2001). Unfortunately, one of the more effective types of medication used for acne has been linked with concerns about depression and suicide in young people, although the evidence as to the drug's causal role in this is not clear as yet. Given the...

Understanding Negative Self Esteem

Understanding self-esteem has considerable practical importance in daily life. If it is believed that all successes come from external sources (luck or someone's pity), then good things coming from others can be seen as an attempt to degrade the individual or offer a bribe. People feeling this way relate to others in ajudgmental way and cause them to turn away. When others turn away, the person takes it as a signal that he or she was correct about his or her unworthiness, and the negative self-esteem level is perpetuated. If this negative self-esteem cycle is to be broken, it is important to convince the person of the critical point made by George Herbert Mead. According to Mead, self-esteem is a product of people's interpretation of the feedback that they receive from others. A person with low self-esteem often misinterprets that feedback. If someone with low self-esteem is told, 'You look really nice today, he or she is likely to misinterpret that to mean, You usually look terrible...

A measure of selfesteem

Racial preference behavior is not synonymous with self esteem, particularly for young children, according to Vinay Harpalani, in an essay Simple Justice or Complex Injustice The Ironic Legacies of Brown v. Board of Education. Harpalani cites the work of several researchers, including that of Margaret Beale Spencer in the early 1980s, who found that most black children who demonstrate a preference for the white doll still score high on self-esteem measures. Harpalani contends that the Clarks' interpretation of data was affected by an ethos of black pathology. Clinical psychologist Darlene Powell-Hopson replicated the Clarks' early findings in the doll tests. In a 1985 study, Powell-Hopson found that nearly two-thirds of black children tested preferred white dolls. Three out of four of the black children said that these black dolls looked bad. Powell-Hopson believes that the children's preferences for the white dolls is less about self esteem than it is a reflection of a race awareness...


Self-esteem is a concept that is closely related to and sometimes confused with Bandura's concept of self-efficacy. Nathaniel Branden, a popular theorist in this area, has suggested that a sense of self-efficacy is actually one of two components that make up self-esteem. The other is self-respect, or having a sense of one's value and right to a happy life. Added together, these two components make up self-esteem, which can be defined as the belief that one is both capable of meeting life's challenges and worthy of enjoying happiness. Few people would dispute that high self-esteem, defined this way, is a good thing. In recent years, however, self-esteem has gotten a bad rap, partly because some people confused it with simply feeling good about oneself. Others confused it with arrogance or conceit, which many psychologists say are actually ways that people with low self-esteem try to bolster their shaky confidence. Several possible methods of enhancing self-esteem have been suggested....

Principal Publications

Aggression A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, 1973. Self-Efficacy Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review 84 (1977) 191-215. Editor. Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. New York Cambridge University Press, 1995. Self-Efficacy The Exercise of Control. New York Freeman, 1997. By this time, however, it was already growing apparent to Bandura that something was missing from his theory. In a 1977 paper, titled Self-Efficacy Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change, he identified the missing piece as self-beliefs. Soon, Bandura had broadened his social learning theory to include a wide range of self-beliefs and self-control abilities. He described a system in which a person's beliefs, thoughts, feelings, and physical responses The linchpin of social-cognitive theory is self-efficacy. In the last few decades, Bandura has continued to explore this concept and its many practical applications. Researchers around the world have taken...

Selfschemas and body image

The core of body image dissatisfaction is a discrepancy between a person's perceived body and their ideal body. A failure to match these leads to self-criticism, guilt and low self-worth. Self-schema is a mental representation of those elements that make an individual different from other people. Myers and Biocca (1992) view a person's body image as one aspect of the mental representation that constitutes the self. As with other aspects of the self, the body image is a mental construction, not an objective evaluation. The authors believe that a number of reference points exist that a person will draw upon when constructing their mental model of body image. These include the 'socially represented ideal body' (ideals represented in the media, and drawn from peers and family), the objective body and the 'internalised ideal body' (a compromise between the objective body and the socially represented ideal). They argue that the body image is elastic in that its reference points frequently...

The psychological impact of skin disease

Research into the manifestations of psychocutaneous disorders has led to an increasing awareness of the psychosocial effects associated with skin disease. These include depression, a decreased sense of body image and self-esteem, sexual and relationship difficulties, and a general reduction in quality of life (Dungey & Busselmeir, 1982 Obermeyer, 1985 Porter et al., 1987 Papadopoulos et al., 1999). Indeed, research has shown that people with skin disease experience higher levels of psychological and social distress (Root et al., 1994), poorer body image and lower self-esteem than the general population (Papadopoulos et al., 1999) and higher avoidance of situations where their skin may be exposed (Rubinow et al., 1987). Leary and colleagues (1998) suggest that the degree of social anxiety depends on a person's confidence regarding their ability to successfully manage the impression they make and it has been shown that social anxiety is a mediating factor between the severity of a...

Humanistic psychology

The self is a central concept in humanistic psychology. Carl Rogers, one of the leaders of the movement, believed that behavior problems were the result of people's failure to trust their own experience, which led to a distorted view of the self. The goal of therapy was to reduce this distortion by helping people gain self-understanding and self-acceptance. Abraham Maslow, another key figure in humanistic psychology, wrote about people's innate drive to achieve self-actualization a process of inner growth in which they realized their potential.

Accuracy of selfbeliefs

Bandura has argued that it may be most helpful if people's judgments of their own efficacy slightly exceed their current ability level. This slight overesti-mation may push people to increase their effort and ultimately improve their skills. However, it seems likely that there is a point where confidence becomes over-confidence, and it starts to hurt rather than help people's performance. Such overconfidence might push people to keep setting unrealistic goals and attempting tasks for which they are completely unprepared. This kind of mismatch between people's beliefs and their true ability is almost certain to lead to failure. One issue that researchers still need to clarify, then, is the point where high self-efficacy beliefs become too high. This is a real concern for managers, teachers, therapists, and others who are interested in helping people develop useful self-efficacy beliefs. Few experts would suggest devising programs or therapies specifically to lower people's sense of...

Selfefficacy and explanatory style

Cognitive psychology continues to evolve. As already noted, one research-oriented branch has merged with neuroscience. Another branch, with closer ties to clinical practice, has turned its attention to the cognitive styles that characterize different people. Explanatory style is the name usually given to the set of cognitive variables that describe how a person habitually interprets the events in his or her life. One example of an explanatory style is optimism versus pessimism. Although optimism is different from high perceived self-efficacy, the two concepts have some features in common. Seligman's is only one of several theories that look at how people explain successes and failures. These theories, like Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, attempt to show what motivates people to act. However, explanatory styles, such as optimism or pessimism, tend to be generalized, affecting all areas of life. Self-efficacy beliefs, on the other hand, tend to be specific. It is quite possible for a...

Instruments For Specific Aspects Of

The instruments described above purport to measure general QoL, and include at least one general question about overall QoL or health. In many trials this may be adequate for treatment comparison, but sometimes the investigators will wish to explore particular issues in greater depth. We describe four instruments that are widely used in clinical trials to explore anxiety and depression, physical functioning, pain, and fatigue. These domains of QoL are particularly important to patients with chronic or advanced diseases. Many other instruments are available, both for these areas and others. Additional examples are coping (Hiirney et al., 1993), satisfaction (Baker and Intagliata, 1982), existential beliefs (Salmon, Mauzi and Valori, 1996) and self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965). Since these questionnaires evaluate specific aspects of QoL, in order for a patient assessment to be called quality of life these instruments would normally be used in conjunction with more general questionnaires.

Selfefficacy at school

In a knowledge-based society, school is more important than ever before. According to self-efficacy theory, the beliefs that students hold about themselves are vital factors in their success or failure at school. Such beliefs may influence why students pick some classes and activities and avoid others. Self-efficacy beliefs also may affect whether students make the necessary effort to succeed. In addition, differences in self-efficacy beliefs may explain why some students are enthusiastic and confident, while others who are equally talented are filled with dread and panic whenever they have to give a presentation or take a test. Several studies have now looked at perceived self-efficacy in math and science. Not surprisingly, the studies have shown that college students tend to choose college majors and career fields in which they feel most competent, and to avoid fields in which they feel less competent. In many cases, young women avoid math and science courses not because they lack...

Selfefficacy and health

A large body of research has also looked at the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and health. In healthy people, a strong sense of self-efficacy can help them adopt a lifestyle that promotes wellness and prevents disease. In people with a chronic illness, self-efficacy beliefs can help them manage pain and other symptoms, reduce the stress associated with being ill, and improve their overall quality of life. In a 2002 article, Bandura explained the benefits for health promotion and disease prevention By managing their health habits, people can live longer, healthier, and slow the process of aging. To stay healthy, people should exercise, refrain from smoking, reduce the amount of dietary fat, keep blood pressure down, and develop effective ways of coping with stressors. Of course, most people know about the benefits of healthy lifestyle habits. Turning that knowledge into action is not always easy, though. High perceived self-efficacy helps people have the confidence to make...

Collective selfefficacy

Individuals are not the only people who hold beliefs about their own efficacy. Organizations, companies, and even whole nations have beliefs about what they can and cannot achieve when their members work together. These beliefs can profoundly impact current actions and future success of the groups. As Bandura wrote in Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies Bandura argues that many aspects of modern life serve to undermine people's sense of collective self-efficacy. At the national level, a nation's economic and

Culturally Congruent Approaches

This part addresses the question of what can be done to improve mental health and functional outcomes for African Americans with disabilities and chronic illnesses. Two chapters in this section are devoted to addressing this issue. One chapter focuses on how to enhance external environmental resources (social support), and one focuses on how to enhance intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-efficacy beliefs and feelings of control). The strategies and interventions reviewed in these chapters are based on the work of the author and her colleagues. Guidelines for implementing a social support intervention (chapter 7) and guidelines for implementing a self-efficacy intervention (chapter 8) are provided. Chapter 9 provides a conclusion to the book and discusses areas where future work is needed.

Economic empowerment interventions for women

In response to these situations, interest has been growing in implementing income-generation interventions, such as microfinance projects - another form of social or structural intervention - as a means of empowering women in their relationships and reducing their material dependence on men. Several studies of micro-credit interventions targeting women and their fertility outcomes (pregnancy rates and contraceptive use) indicated that economic empowerment translated into increased self-esteem, improved social networks, increased control over household decision-making, increased bargaining power and increased contraceptive use (137). Micro-financing has only recently been applied to HIV prevention, so few empirical examples of interventions exist. One large-scale community-level randomized controlled trial in South Africa of an integrated, comprehensive intervention that

Mixing romance and intellectual collaboration

Clark recognized the importance of his wife's work and the two began collaborative research on children's race recognition and self-esteem. They jointly published their findings in professional journals. This led to an award of a Rosenwald Fellowship in 1939, renewed for Phipps-Clark for two subsequent years. The funds supported their continued investigations on self-esteem in black children and Phipps-Clark's pursuit of a doctorate degree at Columbia University. During these years the Clarks' first child, a daughter named Kate, was born. In 1940, Clark completed his studies at Columbia University with a Ph.D. in experimental psychology. In 1943, Phipps-Clark became the first woman and the second African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia. By this time the busy young couple were parents of their second child, a son named Hilton, born in 1943.

Benefits of Meditation

Research on the physiological effects of meditation led to the application of meditative techniques as a treatment to combat stress-related illnesses. Meditators have often experienced significant decreases in such problems as general anxiety, high blood pressure, alcoholism, drug addiction, insomnia, and other stress-related problems. Researchers have also found that the scores of meditators on various psychological tests have indicated general mental health, self-esteem, and social openness. Many psychologists argue, however, that these effects are not unique to meditation and can be produced by means of other relaxation techniques. Meditation researcher Robert Ornstein has suggested that the long-term practice of meditation may induce a relative shift in hemispheric dominance in the brain from the left hemisphere, which is associated with such linear processes as language and logical reasoning, to the right hemisphere, which is associated with nonlinear processes such as music...

Individual Processes and Variables

In addition to our need to predict our world, we have a need to maintain our sense of self-worth and self-esteem. Brewin (1989) and Steele (1988) indicate that one way we do this is by attempting to understand why events have occurred. Greenberg and colleagues (1993) feel that self-esteem serves a stress-buffering function. (For more on stress buffers, see Chapters 2 and 4.) Conversely, blaming other people may contribute to our sense of powerless-ness because we placed the perceived control over the event's occurrence in the hands of another person or persons. Although ironically we may be preserving our self-esteem by blaming others, we paradoxically increase our sense that the cause was out of our personal control. Research and clinical experience suggest that a balance between blaming oneself and blaming others is preferable.

Historical Context

Clark's early research on racial identity and self esteem was inspired by the work of his wife, Mamie Phipps-Clark. The two psychologists collaborated on several studies and published their findings as The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in Negro Preschool Children, and Skin Color as a Factor in Racial Identification of Negro Preschool Children, in the Journal of Social Psychology in 1939 and 1940. Segregation as a Factor in the Racial Identification of Negro Pre-School Children was published in the Journal of Experimental Education in 1939.

Theories In Action

The volatile issues of racism, racial identity, and equal protection of the law came dramatically to the forefront in the second half of the twentieth century. These issues continue to be the subject of research and public debate in the twenty-first century. The pioneering work of early social psychologists such as Kenneth Bancroft Clark and Mamie Phipps-Clark remains relevant today. It provides a starting point for continued investigations into how children develop a healthy personal and social identity and self-esteem in an increasingly multicultural environment and what the proper role of social science is in helping to inform effective public policy change that will bring about social justice and harmony in a diverse and endangered world.

Personality disorders

The personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) are defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that is pervasive across a wide range of personal and social situations and deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. The personality disorders that are most frequently encountered in dermatology include Borderline, Narcissistic and Histrionic personality disorders which all fall in the 'Cluster B' (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) category in the DSM-IV and Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (which is categorised in 'Cluster C'). Borderline personality disorder is associated with a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, affects and self-image, and impulsive behaviours. Such patients are often 'difficult' as their instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image are also manifested in their relationship with their dermatologists and other health care providers. Such patients often try to...

How might stigmatisation be reduced

They included an intervention intended to buffer the negative effects of stigmatisation by encouraging clients to engage in positive self-talk when anyone made a negative comment and to reframe staring as an indication of curiosity rather than rejection (Langer et al., 1976). They found a significant improvement in participants' quality of life, self-esteem and a decrease in negative automatic thoughts post-treatment, compared to a non-treatment comparison group.

Factors Contributing to Employment Success Among African Americans with Disabilities

Factors that facilitate (or impede) employment are an important area of investigation and are the scope of this chapter. Work (or the lack of it) affects the quality of life across several dimensions. In this country, work is tied to self-worth, self-esteem, and feelings of accomplishment. Work impacts interpersonal and social relationships within the home and the community. Perhaps most importantly, having a job determines whether or not one has a basic standard of living with adequate food, shelter, and medical care. For African Americans, people with disabili-

Disease and treatment factors

Whilst, the potential for heightened levels of psychological distress have been found across the range of chronic skin conditions, there is some evidence that there may be differences between specific conditions. Porter et al. (1986) reported poorer adjustment amongst their participants with psoriasis as opposed to those with vitiligo, although both groups experienced lower self-esteem than a control group. Interestingly, the people with psoriasis also reported experiencing more negative reactions from others than the vitiligo group. Type of condition is often also associated with age of onset, insofar as some conditions are congenital whilst others are typically acquired in adolescence and others later in life. This makes it difficult to disentangle disease-specific factors from developmental factors. Again the literature relating to age of onset is also somewhat equivocal. For example, although Porter and Beuf (1988) found a difference between age groups amongst people living with...

Sources for Further Study

A follow-up to the authors' Overcoming Overeating (1988). Reviews the psychological bases for compulsive eating and provides alternative strategies to persons who have an addictive relationship with food. Presents arguments against dieting and proposes that self-acceptance, physical activity, and health are more appropriate long-term solutions to the problem of overeating.

Summary and Implications of Study on Vocational Outcomes

Disability severity Attitudes toward disability Self-esteem Multivariate Analyses. The multivariate analyses allowed us to assess the unique contribution of the resistance and risk factors on the two vocational variables. For the employment status measure, attitudes toward the disability, self-esteem, and perceived capability to do the same type of work were significant factors. For the attitudes toward employment measure, severity of disability, attitudes toward the disability, and self-esteem were significant predictors. Self-esteem appears to have an important influence on vocational success. The importance of self-esteem as it relates to vocational success is highlighted by the fact that it was a significant predictor for both of the employment measures and was significant in both bivariate and multi-variate analyses. Attitudes toward disability were also an influential variable. They were also a significant predictor in both the multivariate and bivariate analyses. This is not...

Role of Early Family Life

Adler looked inside the family for the most powerful influences on a child's developing style of life. Parents who treat a child harshly (through physical, verbal, or sexual abuse) would certainly foster feelings of inferiority in that child. Similarly, parents who neglect or abandon their children contribute to the problem. (Adler believed that such children, instead of directing their rage outward against such parents, turn it inward and say, There must be something wrong with me, or they would not treat me this way. ) Surprisingly, Adler also believed that those parents who pamper their children frustrate the development of positive self-esteem, for such youngsters conclude that they must be very weak and ineffectual in order to require such constant protection and service. When such pampered children go out into the larger world and are not the recipients of constant attention and favors, their previous training has not prepared them for this they rapidly develop inferior feelings.

Coping and adjustment

Consequently, most individuals strive to manipulate their appearance in some way, so as to present themselves in the best possible light to prospective or current partners (Rumsey & Harcourt, 2004). The inability to enhance appearance due to skin disease creates an emotional reality that impacts on individual functioning, and can alter the matrix of social interaction (Koblenzer, 1987 Bradbury, 1996 Landsdown, 1997). Feelings of shame and increased self-consciousness may challenge an individual's sense of self, alter how they approach new romantic encounters or jeopardise emotional security in existing relationships. Research on coping and adjustment has identified clusters of difficulties that individuals commonly face, but there is no neat list of problems encountered by all patients (James, 1989). While skin disease can severely disrupt the lives of some individuals (Jowett & Ryan, 1985 Porter et al., 1990), the extent of disability and distress varies,...

Jane T Bertranda Rebecca Anhangb

Findings Ofthe 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners.

Vocational Service Modalities

Perhaps the first PsyR community services that included work as an integral component took place at Fountain House in New York City, one of the original psychosocial rehabilitation clubhouses (Fountain House is also discussed in Chapter 6 of this text). Established in the 1950s, Fountain House provides work units in which clubhouse members work alongside staff completing the tasks necessary to operate and maintain the clubhouse. These activities give members the opportunity to contribute, to build self-esteem and confidence, and to develop relationships (Beard, Propst, & Malamud, 1994). Partly through the efforts of Fountain House, the clubhouse and other versions of psychosocial rehabilitation services that incorporate the use of prevocational work units have been established throughout the world.

Summary of studies of effectiveness

The evidence supports the effectiveness of mass media interventions in increasing the knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, improving self-efficacy in terms of condom use, influencing social norms about the acceptability of young people discussing reproductive health, increasing interpersonal communication about HIV and prevention behaviours, increasing the use of condoms, and boosting awareness of health providers. The studies reviewed in this article did not tend to show significant effects with regard to creating awareness that healthy looking people may have HIV AIDS or improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence. They also did not show significant effects in terms of increasing the proportion of adolescents who delay their first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners.

Other Aspects of Psychological Control

This discussion has shown that self-efficacy has several positive benefits on behavioral outcomes, as well as affective, emotional, and cognitive states. Self-efficacy is a type of psychological control that can be thought of as an intrapersonal resource. There are several other types of psychological control that are expected to contribute to the individual's ability to function competently. Locus of control is one such belief. Locus of control is a general orientation as to whether or not one believes that reinforcements for outcomes are due to internal factors or external factors (Rotter, 1966). Generally those individuals with an external locus of control orientation believe that outside factors such as luck or powerful others determine outcomes. Those with an internal locus of control orientation generally believe that they are responsible for the reward or punishments associated with their behaviors. A person's locus of control orientation will determine his or her causal...

Theoretical models of the psychological impact of skin disease during childhood

The visibility of the child's condition is also thought to have an impact on the child's adjustment to their condition. Many skin conditions are immediately apparent to other people and children, and their families have to manage the reaction of other people to the child's condition on a daily basis. Papadopoulos et al. (2000) compared the impact of acne which was mainly on a young person's body with acne mostly on the face, and showed that the visible, facial acne sufferers had lower self-esteem and that their body image was more affected than if it was on their body.

The Relationships Among Active Coping Selfefficacy Psychological Control And Social Support

Let's return again to the example of a person who has had a stroke. One way in which this person could cope might be to seek out informational support from a health care provider regarding the prognosis and recommended treatment for his or her condition. Another person might need financial or material support and may ask a friend to loan him or her his car to go to a medical appointment or to borrow money to purchase medication (material support). Another way to cope might be by joining a support group of stroke survivors. Here the group may provide the person with comfort, reassurance, warmth, and positive self-regard that can strengthen his her ability to cope with adversity. Self-efficacy is also related to social support. Individuals who are high in self-efficacy are likely to have environmental social supports that are reinforcing and culturally congruent. For persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities, the development of efficacious beliefs within a framework of supportive...

Stigma and Quality of Life in Long Term Mental Disorders

The scientific discussions about the assumptions backing up this dilemma are not definite. Two schools of thought, one more psychiatrically, the other more sociologically minded, have mapped out the field for this discussion. The psychiatric quarters point out that stigma has no or only a short-lived influence on the course of mental disorders and that the benefit of services largely outweighs the possible disadvantages of a (non-existent or only short-lived) stigma. Sociologists, however, argue that once a person is known to suffer or have suffered from a mental disorder or merely to have used a psychiatric service, the consequences for the further course of the disorder are disastrous. The factual or anticipated discrimination in everyday life, the exclusion actually experienced by many persons suffering from a mental disorder 106 , has negative influences on their self-esteem and self-evaluation and overtaxes their already reduced coping resources. Link et al. 107 have identified...

Defining The Objectives Of The Group

There should be congruence between leaders sponsors and group members as to what these outcomes are. For example, in one of our groups, we (as mental health professionals) were interested in improved mental health (i.e., increased self-esteem, decreased depression, etc.). However, participants (consumers with disabilities) were more interested in employment, housing, and other more immediate basic concerns. The desired outcomes will define the structure and content of group activities. The objectives of our social support intervention were to improve outcomes of African Americans with disabilities across several dimensions, including employment, mental health, and functioning in activities of daily living. As noted in previous chapters, employment was considered an important outcome because of its centrality to quality of life for U.S. citizens. Work (or lack of) in this country often defines how a person views him- or herself and how this person is seen by others....

Research on Supported Education

The self-contained classroom provides a supportive environment that helps students with psychiatric disabilities build self-esteem and develop academic skills. when the study began (Mowbray et al., 1999, in Mowbray & Collins, 2002). Cook and Solomon (1993) reported on 43 members of the Community Scholars Program based at Thresholds, a full clubhouse model program that was described earlier in the models section. Among the community scholars, 42 entered a postsecondary educational institution and 14 received an academic certificate or degree. Other positive outcomes found in the studies reviewed by Mowbray and Collins (2002) included increases in competitive employment, number of hours worked, and average hourly wages. Improvements in consumer self-esteem, self-efficacy, and empowerment were also reported.

Major Issues And Future Directions

Prospective memory is a multifaceted phenomenon that can involve a wide variety of processes. The specific nature of the task will determine which type of processes, cognitive and noncognitive, are emphasized or attenuated, hence allowing for vast opportunities to alter and study different processing attributes of this fundamental function of everyday life (Dobbs & Reeves, 1996). In this chapter, we discussed some issues that may be relevant to our understanding of when and how prospective memory performance is affected by such noncognitive factors as the social relevance of the to-be-performed action and the nature and quality of social interaction. We argued that in the realization of an intention, importance-related motivational factors such as goals' value might have effects that are not mediated by strategic monitoring (see Gollwitzer, 1996). Rather, motivation-driven intentions seem to be characterized by enhanced accessibility of motivation-related representations capable of...

Description of interventions

Knowledge, attitude and behaviour elements were necessarily measured in the evaluations of these interventions, and no evaluations tested the association among knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Some interventions supported their use of peer educators with the claim that peers were better able to effect change than adults (type 1 A, B, E) (15-18). However, only one study compared the difference in programme delivery between peers and adults (type 3 R) (21, 22), and none of the studies articulated a theory of how peers influenced each other. Several intervention studies focused specifically on cultural appropriateness either in the content or method of delivery (type 1 F, J, K type 2 N, O type 3 R, T type 4 U, V) (8-11,14, 19-25). In these studies, cultural appropriateness was described as either a contributor to effecting change or as being necessary to effect change. Mention was made of the importance of building self-esteem and peer bonding around positive social behaviours (type 1...

Therapeutic Relationships

For example, when the patient asks the psychotherapist for advice, the psychotherapist might respond that they could work together on a solution, building on valuable information and ideas that both may have. In this way, the psychotherapist has avoided keeping the patient dependent in the relationship with the psychotherapist, as the patient has been in relationships with parents, a spouse, or others. This is experienced by the patient emotionally, in that it may produce an increase in self-confidence or trust rather than resentment, because the psychotherapist did not dominate. With the repetition of these responses by the psychotherapist, the patient's ways of relating are corrected. Such a repetition is often called working through, another term originating in psychodynamic models of therapy.

Role in Contemporary Society

The role of self-esteem will probably be even greater as psychological inquiry moves ahead. Modern society continues to tell people that if they want to succeed, they have to achieve more. Yet economic downturns and increasing competition to enter colleges and careers make it difficult for young people to live up to those expectations and feel good about who they are. The large role that psychologists with experience in self-esteem enhancement training will play in the future cannot be overemphasized. In order for adults to lead healthy, productive, and satisfied lives, they must feel good about who they are and where they are going. This requires an intimate understanding of the factors that combine to create people's expectations for success and the likelihood that they will be able to achieve that level of success. Self-esteem development must be kept in mind in helping young people create for themselves a realistic set of expectations for success and an ability to make realistic...

Evolution of Theoretical Development

During the 1970's, psychology had grown increasingly cognitive. This development was reflected in Bandura's 1977 book Social Learning Theory, which presented self-efficacy theory as the central mechanism through which people control their own behavior. Over the following decade, the influence of cognitive psychology on Bandura's work grew stronger. In Social Foundations of Thought and Action, he finally disavowed his roots in learning theory and renamed his approach social cognitive theory. This theory accorded central roles to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes.

Freedom and Individual Potential

Freedom to maximize individual potential entails productive love and productive work. Productive love consists of interpersonal relationships based on mutual trust, respect, and cooperation. Productive work refers to daily activities that allow for creative expression and provide self-esteem. Fromm hypothesized that people become anxious and insecure if their need for transcendence is thwarted by a lack of productive work and love. Many people, he believed, respond to anxiety and insecurity by an escape from freedom the unconscious adoption of personality traits that reduce anxiety and insecurity at the expense of individual identity.

Overview Of Empowerment Intervention

For African Americans with disabilities. In this chapter, I discuss strategies used in a most recent intervention that was targeted at changing self-efficacy beliefs and perceptions of control in order to improve mental health (i.e., decrease depression) and vocational outcomes (e.g., become gainfully employed) among a group of working-age African Americans with disabilities. The intervention was designed to achieve the following objectives (1) to increase positive perceptions of self, (2) to increase goal-setting behavior, (3) to increase the perception of control in one's life and to learn to distinguish between what one can and cannot control, (4) to improve participants' self-efficacy beliefs, and (5) to increase the recognition and utilization of adaptive coping strategies for achieving desired outcomes. The objectives and tasks used to meet the objectives were interrelated in that improvements in one area were expected to relate to improvements in other areas. For example, goal...

Initial Strategies for Strengthening Feelings of Control

An important first step in developing self-efficacy and psychological control is to acquaint individuals with the idea that they have some control in their lives. The concept of control may be elusive for people who have been historically disenfranchised and oppressed (a characterization of many members of our group). Members of this group were of low socioeconomic status, without money and jobs, and with limited access to material resources. However, this did not mean that these individuals were without control. As will be discussed, control is dependent upon one's conceptualization of what it means to have and not have it. Learning to set goals is critical in the empowerment process. It is essential to feeling in control and being responsible for one's actions. Goal setting leads us to behave in ways that will facilitate desired outcomes. Goal setting is but one of several steps for developing self-efficacious beliefs as suggested by self-efficacy theory (Bandura 1986 Maddux, 1996)....

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Statistics

One study of female prisoners in Kentucky found that 90 of inmates had a history of substance abuse problems, 62 reported symptoms of depression, 53 reported anxiety disorders, and 43 reported difficulty in concentration. Women's drug use differs from that of men in many ways. There are gender differences in the etiology of substance abuse, and in the relative success of various treatment modalities. The fact that women are more likely to have histories of physical and sexual abuse, as well as coexisting psychiatric disorders, and have measurably lower self-esteem than men clearly needs to be taken into account when developing resources.

Treatment and Prevention

Treatment of speech disorders attempts to eliminate or minimize the disorder and related problems. Many professionals may be involved in providing therapy, special equipment, or surgery. In therapy, specialists teach clients more effective ways of communicating. They may also help families learn to communicate with the disordered individual. Therapy may also include dealing with the negative behavioral effects of having a speech disorder, such as frustration, anxiety, and a feeling of low self-worth. In some cases, surgery can correct structural problems that may be causing speech disorders, such as cleft palate or misaligned teeth. For children with articulation disorders, therapy begins with awareness training of the misarticulations and the correct sound productions. After awareness is established, the new sound's productions are taught. For individuals who exhibit voice disorders, therapy is designed to find the cause of the disorder, eliminate or correct the cause, and retrain...

Conceptual Challenges to Creating Effective Treatment and Reentry Programs for Women

To succeed, reentry programs must provide mental health counseling. Given the frequency of abuse and neglect, it is not surprising that so many female inmates suffer from low self-esteem, as well as depression and anxiety disorders (Singer et al., 1995 BJS, 2000). But the actual figures are staggering. A 2002 study of female juvenile offenders reported that 95.8 suffered from low self-esteem. In this study, 88.6 of the participants said they had been sexually abused, and 77.1 claimed to have been physically abused. On testing, 74.1 were found to have a developmental disability, and 73.5 were suffering from severe mental trauma as a result of abuse (Bloome et al., 2002).

Medical Traumatic Stress

Families secondary to traumatic injury or illness. They suggest focusing on eight critical issues that arise for children and families for intervention loss of control, loss of self-image, dependency, stigma, abandonment, fear of expressing anger, isolation, and fear of death.

Building the Case for Oral Health Care

The Surgeon's General report Oral Health in America went beyond health to document the pervasive effects of oral diseases and conditions on the well-being of disadvantaged members of U.S. society (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). That is, oral diseases and their treatments may undermine self-image and self-esteem, discourage family and other social interactions, and lead to chronic stress and depression all at great emotional and financial costs. They also interfere with vital functions of daily living such as breathing, eating, swallowing, and speaking in assorted areas of activity, including work, school, play, and home (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000).

When Desired Goals Cannot Be

Much of the discussion of the development of self-efficacy beliefs has centered on the mastery of tasks involving practice in order to increase feelings and judgments of accomplishments toward the attainment of desired goals. What can be done when one cannot realistically expect to achieve a desired goal because of personal or environmental circumstances (i.e., a disability that is very severe or the lack of material resources) Under these circumstances, other types of control must be considered.

Psychological Assessment

A small proportion of the people who apply to go overseas as aid workers or expatriates do so because of emotional difficulties, perhaps being motivated by guilt or a desire to escape from their current situation. The vast majority, on the other hand, are psychologically healthy (Lovell, 1997). Among those with no current difficulties, some are more vulnerable than others to experiencing difficulty in adjusting to the demands of the new culture. Those who cannot work effectively in the new culture may suffer from a loss of self-esteem and from stress-related problems. They may have to return home early, which can cause family problems and career difficulties. Their colleagues may also be adversely affected. Recruiting people for positions overseas, training them, and transporting them abroad is a costly business. Difficulties carry a financial cost, as well as an emotional one. Moreover, if an organization is perceived as having inadequate selection or support procedures, they may in...

The body as aesthetic object

Individual CBT can allow a therapist to study Jake's view of himself and the premium he placed on the aesthetic value of his body. Many schemas are laid down in the early years of living and those that act maladaptively can integrate later experience within this maladaptive context. They may work to create such ramifications as feelings of social anxiety, shame and poor self-esteem. Rather than focus on the functional aspects of the body, the body can be viewed from an aesthetic perspective and self-criticism can act as part of a campaign to judge the self by impossibly high standards. The number of self-aspects in which a patient engages and the extent to which they compartmentalise cognitive aspects of the self can profoundly influence feelings of self-worth in the presence of a given social context. CBT often works to separate the self from the disease, which in many cases is the paramount issue since the disease can come to represent the self in an aesthetic context. Working with...

Maslows hierarchy of needs

Esteem needs The next level of Maslow's need hierarchy involves the need for esteem, that is, positive regard and respect. Maslow distinguished two types of esteem needs, the need for self-esteem and the need for esteem from others. He noted that people who have reasonably satisfied their self-esteem needs feel confident and worthwhile, and also experience a sense of independence and freedom. In addition to this need, people also need to feel that other people respect and recognize them as worthwhile. Maslow pointed out that the respect and adulation of others must be earned fame by itself, without merit, would not satisfy the person's need for esteem from others. Maslow thought that self-esteem was related to feelings of dominance or powerfulness. In his early work with monkeys, he had observed that some monkeys assume dominance over others and that this seemed to come from the monkey's feeling that he deserved higher status. Maslow carried this idea into his understanding of...

Stages of Change A Case Study Applying Motivational Interviewing

Effective motivational interviewing is based on four principles (1) express empathy, (2) develop discrepancy, (3) roll with resistance, and (4) support self-efficacy (Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 36). In expressing empathy the practitioner is communicating acceptance and an understanding of the person's behavior from the person's perspective. First, the practitioner assists the person in identifying his own goals and values. Then the practitioner helps the individual examine whether there is any discrepancy between his goals and his behavior. The practitioner does not argue for change when met with resistance, but rather accepts ambivalence as natural and assists the person in recognizing the discrepancy between his stated goals and behavior. The practitioner expresses belief in the person's ability to change.

Arousal Cost Reward Model

According to the arousal cost-reward model, a person will choose to engage in the arousal-decreasing response associated with the fewest net costs. Net costs are based on two types of rewards and costs associated with the helping situation costs for not helping and rewards and costs for helping. Costs for not helping occur when no assistance is given and may include experiences such as feeling troubled because someone in need is continuing to suffer, or receiving criticism from others for being callous. Costs for helping are direct negative outcomes that the potential helper might experience after offering help, such as loss of time, embarrassment, or injury. Helping, however, can also be associated with positive outcomes such as praise, gratitude, and feelings of self-worth.

The Self Psychological Approach

Self-psychology is considered a descendent of Freudian psychoanalysis and was developed by, among others, Heinz Kohut. Richard Ulman and Doris Brothers (1988) present a treatment approach from the Kohutian self-psychology perspective. At the core of self-psychology is the notion that the structure of the self is created through relationships. Each of us possesses the psychic structure, the self-object, to refer to someone who is important in satisfying our basic, narcissistic-oriented needs. Self-objects are in the service of the self. The self is developed through the mirroring processes of the parents and primary caregivers. This sense of self develops and progresses from grandiosity and being the center of the world into a more healthy sense of self-esteem and ambition. Failures in mirroring result in an inadequate sense of self. In future relationships, the self-object is used to symbolize other people, and such people are expected to respond to you in a way that your...

Misuse of reinforcement

Another criticism of reinforcement argues that certain behaviors should be performed by individuals in society regardless of the rewards or reinforcements that are associated. Appropriate behavior, such as responsible parenting, civil duties, altruistic help, and many others, should be expected as the norm for community behavior and not depend on bribery or the enticement of a reward. Skinner would respond by saying that reinforcements or rewards are always being used in daily living, whether individuals are consciously aware of them or not. Even if explicit rewards are not given, internal reinforcement may be present. Self-praise, or feelings of self-esteem from doing well at a chosen task, could provide a form of reinforcement.

The Concept of Recovery

Another corollary of the recovery concept is that each person's road to recovery is unique. Because recovery is based on developing a new self-image, we might assume that there may be as many roads to recovery as there are people. The uniqueness of each person's rehabilitation has a direct bearing on PsyR services. Effective programs respect diversity and provide many individualized services for their service recipients. One size Because the core task that the recovering person needs to accomplish is the development of a new and positive sense of self or self-image that incorporates his or her mental illness, other consumers also have an important role to play in the recovery process. Consumers who have achieved a positive self-image despite their illness serve as role models and they provide evidence that it can be done. Role modeling is a fundamental PsyR strategy. An aspect of Bandura's social learning theory (1977), which is covered in more depth in Chapter 5, role modeling is the...

Psychological Model of Adjustment to Cancer

Inauthor Stirling Moorey

According to Moorey and Greer's cognitive model of adjustment, the personal meaning of cancer, based on an idiosyncratic appraisal of the threat to survival and the threat to the self, is an important determinant of an individual's adaptation to their disease. Moorey and Greer's model helps to explain why any two individuals with the same disease may react very differently to a diagnosis of cancer. For someone who has relied heavily on their appearance for self-esteem, treatment associated with hair loss or scarring may be devastating. Someone else who

The impact of skin disease on the motherchild relationship

It is very important for the child that his or her mother is able to overcome high levels of anxiety and is able to manage the child's skin condition confidently. It is also important for the mother to feel she is able to love and fully accept her child despite any appearance difficulty. If the child's mother is able to become resolved about the child's condition, she is more likely to enable her child to develop a positive attitude towards his or her own skin, and develop a good sense of self-esteem. She will also be in the best position to deal with any anxieties or difficulties her child has in a constructive way.

The Self as a Regulator of Individual Processes

Social cognitive theory has also directed research on self-efficacy, the belief that one will be capable of using one's own behavior, knowledge, and skills to master a situation or overcome an obstacle. For example, Bandura showed in 1986 that people in recovery from a heart attack were more likely to follow an exercise regimen when they learned to see themselves as having physical efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy was demonstrated throughout the 1980's and 1990's as contributing to a wide range of behaviors, from weight loss to maternal competence to managerial decision making. A final theme coming to prominence since the 1970's relates to identity and self-concept. Self-concept has been defined by American psychologist Roy Baumeister as one's personal beliefs about oneself, including one's attributes and traits and one's self-esteem, which is based on self-evaluations. American developmental psychologists such as Jerome Kagan, Michael Lewis, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn found that by...

The Development of Clubhouse Programs

Belonging where there was alienation, Empowerment where there was helpessness, Self-respect where there was self-denigration, Hope and opportunity where once there was only despair. philosophy, embodied in the work-ordered day, stresses the importance of work for providing a sense of meaning in life and a sense of belonging to a community. Performing meaningful work endows the worker with purpose. For clubhouse members, work begins with the day-to-day operation of the clubhouse itself, from custodial tasks and record keeping to paying bills and hiring new staff. The clubhouse emphasis on work leads to several other important outcomes such as member empowerment and the development of a sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Perhaps most importantly, it is intended to lead to competitive employment outside the clubhouse. Clubhouse members and staff emphasize many ways in which their programs differ from other types of psychiatric rehabilitation services. The following section about...

What Does the Term Psychiatric Rehabilitation Mean

In the helping professions, the term rehabilitate means to restore to an optimal state of constructive activity. Of course, what is optimal is relative to the individual. An individual's optimal level of constructive activity depends on several factors. How well a person functions depends on how severe the illness is at the time, the severity of the disability, the abilities he or she still possesses, the outside supports that are available, and what some theorists call the stage of recovery. Stage of recovery refers to the individual's level of progress in his or her ability to cope with the disease and disability and his or her self-image as a functioning person. The concept of recovery will be dealt with in some depth in Chapter 4. Psychiatric rehabilitation refers to efforts to restore persons with psychiatric disabilities to optimal states of constructive activity. The degree of disability a person experiences is often variable. Some persons with severe and persistent mental

Cognitive Mediating Factors

According to Bandura, the central mechanism of self-regulation is self-efficacy, defined as the belief that one has the ability, with one's actions, to bring about a certain outcome. Self-efficacy beliefs function as determinants of behavior by influencing motivation, thought processes, and emotions in ways that may be self-aiding or self-hindering. Specifically, self-efficacy appraisals determine the goals people set for themselves, whether they anticipate and visualize scenarios of success or failure, whether they embark on a course of action, how much effort they expend, and how long they persist in the face of obstacles. Self-efficacy expectations are different from outcome expectations. While outcome expectancies are beliefs that a given behavior will result in a certain outcome, self-efficacy refers to the belief in one's ability to bring about this outcome. To put it simply, people may believe that something can happen, but whether they embark on a course of action depends on...

Rogerss common ground with other humanist psychologists

Rogers' conditional positive self regard, or the development of a person's self-esteem that is based on complying with the requirements of others, is remarkably similar to the theory propounded by Karen Horney. As did Horney, Rogers believes that this society-induced betrayal of the self is one of the building-blocks for the development of neurosis, or what Rogers called incongruence. The conditional regard of parents as described by Rogers is quite similar to the basic evil as described by Horney parental indifference unless the child complies with their wishes. Maslow's hierarchy of needs, progressing from basic physiological requirements such as hunger, thirst, and sex to self-actualization is very similar to Rogers' transition from the actualizing tendency to the fully functioning person.

Self Advocacy and the ExPatient ConsumerSurvivor Movement

In her book On Our Own, Chamberlin (1988) described both her personal experiences as a psychiatric inpatient and her involvement in some of these early self-advocacy initiatives. She described how consciousness-raising groups, which were not unlike those inspired by the women's movement, helped people labeled as mentally ill recognize the negative effects that the mental health system had on their self-image. Such groups helped ex-patients rebuild their self-esteem and inspired action such as the development and publication of a patients' rights handbook. Other groups led to the development of

The social and psychological impact of skin conditions

Perhaps not surprisingly given the potential, social, and physical consequences previously described, elevated levels of psychological morbidity have been reported within the literature (Harlow et al., 2000 Picardi et al., 2001 Picardi et al., 2003a). The kind of psychological difficulties commonly found have included anxiety (e.g. Jowett & Ryan, 1985) depression including risk of suicide (e.g. Hughes et al., 1983 Cotterill & Cunliffe, 1997 Humphreys & Humphreys, 1998) lowered self-esteem (e.g. Jowett & Ryan, 1985 Porter & Beuf, 1988 Van der Donk et al., 1994) feelings of shame (e.g. Jowett & Ryan, 1985 Salzer & Schallreuter, 1995 Thompson et al., 2002) and concerns with body image (e.g. Papadopoulos et al., 1999b Benrud-Larson et al., 2003).

Safety Security and Attachment Psychodynamic Approaches to PTSD

Edith Jacobson (1949) proposed that traumatic stressors represent an assault on our ego and result in a narcissistic disturbance inside the ego involving conflicts between self-representations (Ulman & Brothers, 1988, p. 52). Conflict arises between views of oneself as safe and secure versus being weak and unsafe. There are problems with the formulation and maintenance of a healthy self-image. Decompensation and regression develop as responses to the assault on a person's dignity and pride. There is an unacceptable and painful sense of self or

Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for PTSD

Assertiveness training is a skill-building intervention sometimes used in conjunction with other therapies. It is intended to be a coping skill that helps reduce arousal in tense or otherwise arousing situations that a PTSD sufferer may have otherwise avoided or overreacted to. It may also be viewed as a solid adjunct for helping a patient develop a stronger sense of self-efficacy and self-control. However, it is not considered a therapy or treatment in and of itself and is not considered a vital component of treatment overall (Rothbaum et al., 2000a, b).

Unique Challenges for Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities

Discrimination, and isolation in academic settings (Cooper, 1993 Dougherty et al., 1996 Mowbray et al., 1993). In addition, being labeled with a psychiatric diagnosis, failing at attempts to achieve personal goals, and experiencing the stigmatizing attitudes of others can all contribute to the low self-esteem experienced by many people with psychiatric disabilities. This type of low self-esteem has been labeled self-stigma and may be the most daunting barrier to overcome.

Structure of the mind id ego superego

The superego works to inhibit the id's impulses while persuading the ego to substitute moralistic goals for realistic ones and to strive for perfection. The superego works off the basis of psychological rewards and punishments. If a person responds in the right manner, the reward might be a feeling of pride or self-love. If the individual deems their action as immoral or wrong, the resulting punishment might be guilt or feelings of inferiority.

Guided Mastery Experiences

One way to strengthen self-efficacy is through guided mastery experiences. This involves breaking a task into small, incremental steps that can be done within a relatively short period of time (Bandura, 1986). These tasks should be directed at achieving subgoals. For example sub-tasks related to meeting employment subgoals were described previously (i.e., schedule appointment, read help-wanted ads, learn to use public transportation, etc.). Once a subtask is accomplished, another is added until the desired behavior is achieved and the overall goal has been met. For example, if the overall goal is to find suitable housing, one first step might be to learn how to read a housing ad. A second step might be to learn how to complete a housing application. The third step might be to learn how to carry out an interview with the landlord. It may not be the most effective strategy to set the goal of finding suitable housing as the first goal because failure and disappointment may erode one's...

Consequences of Deficit and Excess Energy Intake

Excess energy intake and positive energy balance are promoted by readily available, energy-dense foods and sedentary lifestyles 11 . The consequences of excess energy and obesity are well described in children 12 . Obesity-related co-morbidities include type-2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperandrogenism in girls, sleep disorders, respiratory difficulties, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gallbladder disease, orthopedic problems, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Serious psychosocial problems including poor self-esteem and depression also are common. Childhood obesity and its co-morbidities have a significant likelihood of persisting throughout adolescence and into adulthood.

Paranoid and Depressive Anxieties

A stage of persecutory anxiety is then followed by a phase of depressive anxiety, linked to the fear of being overwhelmed, along with one's significant figures, by the destructive facets of the impulse. The encounter with the risk of losing a loved object arouses the instinct to repair the damage produced in the imagination, so as to rebuild self-confidence and the bond, as a sign of love and care. If something arises to stop this pro

Defense and Coping Strategies

In order to cope with basic anxiety, individuals use additional defensive strategies or neurotic trends to cope with the world. These involve three primary patterns of behavior moving away from others, moving toward others, and moving against others. In addition, neurotic individuals develop an idealized self, an unrealistic, flattering distortion of the self-image that encourages people to set unattainable standards, shrink from reality, and compulsively search for glory (compulsive and insatiable efforts to fulfill the demands of the idealized self) rather than accept themselves as they are.

The State of the Superordinate Goal

Sheeran, Webb, and Gollwitzer (2005, Study 2) found that implementation intention effects are sensitive to the (even subliminal) activation of the superordinate goal. In other words, implementation intentions only affect behavior when the superordinate goal is activated. As a consequence, people who use implementation intentions to avoid forgetting to act on their goals should seek out situational contexts that implicitly or explicitly activate the respective goal. However, implementation intention effects are not only found to be sensitive to goal activation, they also respect the strength of and commitment to the superordinate goal (e.g., Sheeran et al., 2005, Study 1). The more hours college students wanted to engage in independent study, the greater the beneficial effects of respective implementation intentions specifying when, where, and how to study. If implementation intentions fail to benefit goal attainment given that the goal is weak, people have to ensure that goal strength...

The Dilemma of Functional Expectancy and Independence Dependence Revisited

Filled plans and aspirations that may not be helpful at all. For example, there may be the daily stress of being presented with the fact that one is not making a normal, expected contribution to family life. On the other hand, the lack of this expectation on the part of others may harm self-esteem. In addition, failing to achieve independence is also constantly thrown in one's face by having to depend on one's family for basic needs. These clearly are significant stresses that are more acutely felt in a family environment as opposed to solitary living.

Professional Self Care

Pearlman and Saakvitne (1995) group treatments for STSD into three categories personal, professional, and organizational. Personal treatment should involve identifying and analyzing disrupted schemas that arise from working with a particular trauma victim or victims. Schemas that are particularly related to safety, trust, self-esteem, intimacy, and control should be focused on. Also, trauma clinicians should have personal lives outside of work. They should also engage in healing activities such as art, music, spending time with loved ones, or even community services. This will vary for every individual, of course. Finally, one should attend to his or her spiritual needs.

Three Aspects of the Proprium

Allport referred to the unifying core of personality, or those aspects of the self that a person considers central to self-identity, as the proprium. During the first three to four years of life, three aspects of the proprium emerge. The sense of a bodily self involves awareness of body sensations. Self-identity represents the child's knowledge of an inner sameness or continuity over time, and self-esteem reflects personal efforts to maintain pride and avoid embarrassment. Self-extension emerges between the fourth and sixth year of life this refers to the child's concept of that which is mine, and it forms the foundation for later self-extensions such as career and love of country. The self-image, which also emerges between ages four and six, represents an awareness of personal goals and abilities as well as the good and bad parts of the self. The ability to see the self as a rational, coping being emerges between ages six and twelve and represents the ability to place one's inner...

Individual Level Strategies

Priate health and rehabilitative services should be a desired individual goal. These beliefs may be more difficult to promote among those African Americans who have not had extensive experience with taking control. However, these beliefs can be learned. (Strategies for increasing self-efficacy beliefs and the perception of control are discussed in chapter 8.)

Intrapersonal Resources for Increasing Adaptive Functioning

One's cognitions (i.e., thoughts, beliefs, and ways of viewing the world) have a pervasive influence on behavior, including the experiencing of disabilities and chronic illnesses. These cognitions are conceptualized by the author as intrapersonal resources insofar as they allow us to use inner resources to help us function competently. Chapter 6 provides an examination of two intrapersonal resources as they impact functional and mental health outcomes for African Americans with chronic illnesses and disabilities. These are (a) self-efficacy and other types of psychological control and (b) coping strategies.

Skin disease and body image

It has been reported that there are moderate associations between body dissatisfaction and poor psychological adjustment for men and women across the lifespan (Cash, 1985) and research has revealed that evaluative body image accounts for around a quarter to a third of variance in global self-esteem (Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990). As such, body satisfaction can have a considerable influence on psychosocial health. The literature has also shown a relationship between body satisfaction and depression (Noles et al., 1985), social confidence and social evaluation anxiety (Cash, 1993).

Improving Public Health Through Correctional Health Care

With our high rates of incarceration and high burden of illness, there are social policy conundrums that go beyond the authority of correctional administrators and correctional health practitioners. Public policy makers will be dealing with increasing costs for medical care, not just because of health care inflation, but because the inmate population is aging. What is the effect of our current policies on communities Inmates are returning to their home communities without treatment, education, skills, housing, jobs, and self-confidence. Each of these topics is covered in this book. How do we make the expense of incarceration into an investment in our communities Who do we lock up and who can we safely divert, perhaps in a more constructive manner How to think about the potential effect of reentry for healthier communities And, how do we improve the health literacy of public policy makers so as to improve the public health

The Influence Of Culture On Beliefs About Health Illness And Disability

There is historical as well as theoretical support for the role of faith and spirituality in treatment. The power of faith and meditation has been documented since antiquity. If one has strong beliefs that one will recover and or improve, this enhances the likelihood of improvement. This is akin to self-efficacy beliefs, which are discussed in chapter 8. The individual is more likely to have thoughts of and engage in behaviors to facilitate recovery and optimal functioning. The other beneficial aspect of faith is that it provides an adaptive coping strategy, so that a person is better able to deal with and accept the challenge and or limitations of his her health status, disability, or impairment.

Attributional Style Questionnaire

As research continued, however, Seligman discovered that exposure to uncontrollable negative situations did not always lead to helplessness and depression. Moreover, the results yielded no explanation of the loss of self-esteem frequently seen in depressed persons. To refine their ability to pre-

Empowering African Americans Through Increasing Perceptions of Control and Selfefficacy Beliefs

In chapter 6, a rationale for the importance of psychological control and self-efficacy beliefs for enhancing outcomes for African Americans with chronic illnesses and disabilities was provided. As discussed in that chapter, perceptions of psychological control and self-efficacy beliefs are intrapersonal resources that can help one to achieve desired goals and to function adaptively. These intrapersonal resources are empowering for everyone and especially for individuals who may not have material or tangible resources. In this chapter, I outline strategies that can be used to increase self-efficacy beliefs and perceptions of psychological control among African Americans with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The strategies outlined in this chapter can be utilized by consumers and or by professionals who work with consumers. Psychological control and self-efficacy are expected to lead to more positive outcomes and a higher level of adaptive functioning. Many of these strategies have...

Causes of Eating Disorders

Eating disorders seem to develop in three stages. Stage 1 involves the period from the time a child is conceived until the onset of a particular behavior that precipitates the eating disorder. During this stage, individual psychological, personal, and physical factors, plus family, social, and cultural factors, place the person at increased risk. Individual risk factors include a personal history of depression, low self-esteem, perfectionism, an eagerness to please others, obesity, and physical or sexual abuse. Family risk factors include a family member with an eating disorder or a mood disorder and excessive familial concern for appearance and weight. Social and cultural issues include emphasis on the cultural ideal of excessive thinness, leading to dissatisfaction with the body and dieting for weight loss. Young women who are dancers, runners, skaters, gymnasts, and the like may be particularly susceptible to this kind of cultural pressure.

Psychosocial impact of skin diseases

Cognitively appearance-altering, cutaneous conditions can have a profound effect on self-concept and on body image. Any minor deformity or disfigurement can contribute to the development of heightened body awareness. Cutaneous conditions can often have a progressive and episodic course making it necessary for the patient to adapt to changes in physical appearance. Hence, patients must not only learn to cope with the challenges of living with an appearance that deviates from the norm but also to adapt to a changing body image. That is, skin disease patients must develop and maintain a sense of self-esteem without relying upon physical attractiveness. This is an extremely difficult task given the fact that the robust relationship between self-esteem and body image has been underscored in numerous studies (Papadopoulos et al., 2002).

History of the Supported Education Model

The Continuing Education Program, operated by the Boston University (BU) Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation during the early 1980s, is probably the best-known example of these early educational programs. Students attended classes on the BU campus, a location that helped them develop a positive self-image. Students were assisted in identifying short- and long-term educational and vocational goals, and then learned the skills they would need to achieve these goals. They were also encouraged to utilize resources at BU such as the student center and athletic facilities. The program ran several hours per day over four semesters. Graduates had the opportunity to receive ongoing support from the staff of the BU center as they pursued educational and vocational goals (Sullivan-Soydan, 2004 Unger, 1998).

Psychology and treatment

A number of cutaneous conditions (Van Moffaert, 1992 Papadopoulos & Bor, 1999), and an array of techniques and approaches have been adopted within this context. These include psychoanalysis and hypnosis (Gray & Lawlis, 1982) behavioural techniques (Wolpe, 1980) and CBT (Papadopoulos et al., 1999). These interventions have been shown to produce clinically significant improvements (Van Moffaert, 1992) and have helped people to improve their quality of life (Papadopoulos et al., 1999). Group therapy has also proved beneficial, allowing the loneliness and isolation that many patients experience to be diminished. Self-confidence and acceptance can be developed within a trusting and cohesive atmosphere.

Importance of Childhood and Adolescence

An interest in self-esteem developed along with interest in psychological questions in general. Early psychologists such as Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, William James, and others all realized that an important part of what makes individuals think and act the way they do is determined by the early experiences that create their sense of self and self-esteem. Avery important aspect Feedback from parents plays a crucial role in the development of a child's self-esteem. (CLEO Photography) of psychological inquiry has been asking how and why people perceive and interpret the same event so differently. Self-esteem and self-concept play a big role in these interpretations. Knowing an individual's self-esteem level helps one to predict how others will be perceived, what kind of other individuals will be chosen for interaction, and the kinds of attitudes and beliefs the person may hold. An understanding of childhood development and adolescence would be impossible without an understanding of the...

Benefits to Peer Providers and Mental Health Systems

A number of studies were done to examine the potential benefits of peer-delivered services for the persons providing the services. Most of these studies used qualitative research methods such as interviews with peer providers (Solomon, 2004). Sherman and Porter (1991) found that peer providers had fewer hospitalizations after becoming providers. Peer providers have also reported a number of quality-of-life improvements (Armstrong, Korba, & Emard, 1995 Mowbray, Moxley, & Collins, 1998). Salzer and Shear (2002) conducted in-depth interviews with 14 peer providers and reported improved self-esteem, valuable Laura, a 38-year-old woman who currently works as a peer advocate on a PACT team, was diagnosed with bipolar disorder when she was 24. A college graduate with a degree in English, Laura hoped for a career in publishing. She had some success as an assistant editor when she was in her early 20s, but her illness interrupted her career and by the time she was 30 she wondered if she could...

Body image and sexual intimacy

A negative body image can damage the perception of self as a sexual being and thus disrupt intimacy in a relationship. Gupta and Gupta (1997) investigated the impact of psoriasis on the sexual activities of 120 sufferers and found that 40 experienced a decline in sexual activity and had higher scores on depression than non-affected patients. Embarrassment over unsightly or painful lesions was most apparent during intercourse which also confirms past research that sexual functioning is disrupted in dermatology patients if genital areas are affected (Buckwalter, 1982 Medansky, 1986). It appears that negative body image perpetuates sexual difficulties because anxiety or low self-esteem can decrease a patients' interest in initiating

Socialcognitive theory and moral disengagement

According to Bandura, people set standards for themselves that guide their moral behavior. Most of the time, these standards help people keep themselves in line. People refrain from behaving badly, because that would bring self-blame and guilt. Instead, they usually prefer to act in a way that leaves them with a sense of worth and self-respect. Sometimes, however, people use tricks of thinking to let themselves off the hook for violating their own standards. Fortunately, just as people can use their thoughts to justify immorality, they can also use them to motivate moral behavior. As Bandura sees it, moral thinking helps stop immoral actions in part by helping people control their angry feelings. Anger control, in turn, is based partly on people's belief in their ability to handle their emotions in other words, on their perceived self-efficacy for emotional control.

The controversy continues

In his book Forced Justice, sociologist David Armor examines the impact and effectiveness of court-ordered desegregation. Armor questions the social science research, particularly the Clarks' doll studies, and the finding that low self-esteem in black children is a result of segregated classrooms. Armor contends that the court-ordered desegregation was based on questionable interpretations of the Clarks' studies.

Cognitive factors personality characteristics and core beliefs

Shame-proneness is another personality factor linked to early relationships (Tangey & Fischer, 1995 Gilbert & Miles, 2002). Feelings of shame have frequently been described by some people living with chronic skin conditions (e.g. Jowett & Ryan, 1985). Indeed, it has been argued that shame, self-esteem, appearance consciousness, fear of negative evaluation, and social anxiety are all similar concepts, in terms of their developmental origins, their relation to one's sense of being accepted by others, and their underlying cognitive processes (Thompson, 1998). This may explain why some earlier studies have found self-esteem to be closely related to adjustment (Porter et al., 1990 Van der Donk et al., 1994).

Summary And Future Directions For Research

The results of more than two decades of observational studies on naturally occurring social support do not confirm a hypothesized link between maternal social support and preterm delivery however, the studies do provide fairly consistent evidence for a direct association between social support and infant birth weight. Similarly, the provision of additional support to pregnant women during controlled intervention studies has not reduced the likelihood that the mother will give birth too early, although it does appear to have other benefits for women's health care and psychosocial adjustment. The few available studies on maternal self-esteem, mastery, and optimism provide little evidence for associations with preterm birth specifically, although the concept of perceived control may be a risk factor. Finally, preliminary research on the association of the intendedness of the pregnancy and preterm delivery suggests that women with unintended pregnancies are more likely to deliver their...

Control and Helplessness

Locus of control refers to the location where one believes control over life events originates. An external locus of control is outside oneself an internal locus of control is within oneself. The individual who perceives that life events are the result of luck, or are determined by others, is assuming an external locus of control. The belief that one's efforts and actions control one's own destiny reflects an internal locus of control. Internalizers are thought to be more likely to assume responsibility for initiating necessary lifestyle changes, to employ direct coping mechanisms when confronted with stressful situations, and to be more optimistic about the possibility of successfully instituting changes that are needed. This last characteristic is sometimes called self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to the belief that one is able to do what is needed and attain the intended effect.