Improving Your Sex Life

Revive Her Drive

Be ready to go through a complete transformation in the way that you think and feel about having sex with your wife or girlfriend! Revive Her Drive is like a Cheat Sheet to woo your woman the way she secretly wants you to, and simply cant express. The solution is based on female-friendly, easy-to-learn strategies that she will love! How nice will that moment be when shes lying in your arms, happy and spent, and she actually Thanks You for helping her to rediscover her sensual self? Shell be grateful that you, Her Man, now that you have the vision and skill to guide her into new, electrifying experiences even if she fights you or resists you now. Women Are sensual creatures. We women want pleasure, intimacy, connection, sensation as much as you do! Ill prove this to you. Once you know how to captivate her, you can turn her into a pleasure-seeking device within 24 hours. Getting that kind of responsiveness is the feedback you need to feel confident this program is working. Discover how Robert rekindled his relationship with Lauren using the tools within Revive Her Drive by watching this short presentation that lays out the whole strategy youll use to transform your intimate life into one of passion, surrender and fantasies-come-true. Read more here...

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Quantum exercise with a sexual partner

Step I Notice your present sexual experience. Step II Notice part of your attention is on your sexual partner. Step III As the energy peaks, turn your attention away from your sexual partner and notice where in your body you are experiencing sexual sensations. Step IV Experience the size and shape of the sexual feelings, as you allow the sensations to build.

Sexual Activity

The potential for adverse effects of sexual activity, particularly intercourse, during pregnancy has been of concern for some time due to the potential for direct effects of semen on initiating preterm labor, alteration of vaginal microflora, or other hypothesized pathways leading to preterm birth. Much of the interest and research on this question appeared in the 1980s, with consistent evidence that remaining sexually active during pregnancy was not associated with pre-term birth (Rayburn & Wilson, 1980 Mills et al., 1981 Klebanoff et al., 1984). There was some suggestion that intercourse in the presence of certain infections, namely Trichomonoa vaginalis and Mycoplasm hominis, might increase risk for preterm birth (Read & Klebanoff, 1993), but more recent studies have continued to report not just an absence of increased risk associated with sexual activity but a notably diminished risk of preterm birth (Sayle et al., 2003). This may well be a reflection of selection for remaining...

Sources for Further Study

Sex and America's Teenagers. New York Author, 1994. The report of a study conducted by the Alan Guttmacher Institute on teenage sexual activity in the 1990's. It is presented in written and graphical forms and provides a good look at adolescent sexuality. Bell, Ruth, et al. Changing Bodies, Changing Lives A Book for Teens on Sex and Relationships. 3d ed. New York Random House, 1998. Written specifically for a teenage audience. Teens from around the United States were surveyed in order to determine the book's contents, and they share their unique perspectives on sexuality. This is perhaps one of the best resources available for teens. Columbia University Health Education Program. The Go Ask Alice Book of Answers A Guide to Good Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Health. New York Owl Books, 1998. Inspired by Columbia's award-winning and hugely popular Web site, this book is packed with straightforward, nonjudgmental, comprehensive answers to the toughest, most...

Judith D Auerbacha Richard J Hayesb Sonia M Kandathila

The goal of interventions aimed at changing behaviours is to reduce the risk of HIV-related sexual and drug-use behaviours. Behavioural change interventions seek to delay the onset of sexual intercourse, reduce the number of sexual partners a person has and reduce the incidence of unprotected sex by increasing condom use. Behavioural change interventions also target drug use and seek to reduce or eliminate the incidence of drug injecting and the incidence of sharing needles, syringes and other drug-use equipment. True reductions in such behavioural risks would reduce the transmission and acquisition of HIV infection. behavioural (such as the safe use of injected drugs, reducing the incidence of sharing drug paraphernalia, encouraging the use of male or female condoms, reducing the number of partners and frequency of unprotected sexual activity and encouraging HIV testing), and and adolescents, injecting drug users and men who have sex with men. They have found that such interventions...

Cervical barrier methods

The female condom is a lubricated polyurethane sheath with a ring on either end that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. It has been studied primarily for its effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and STIs other than HIV. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that the female condom provides an effective barrier to organisms smaller than those that cause most STIs, and it is at least equivalent to male condoms in terms of preventing gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and chlamydia (111). There have been no clinical trials specifically assessing the efficacy or effectiveness of the female condom in preventing HIV infection. However, based on studies in which STI prevention and pregnancy prevention were assessed, it is estimated that the female condom is 94-97 effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection if used correctly and consistently (111). The female condom may be a more attractive choice than male condoms for some women because it resists...

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

The AIDS epidemic now affects every country in the world. While the origin of AIDS is still under dispute, the role of travel in its international spread is not. One well-documented route of spread of HIV was travellers returning to Haiti from Africa, and subsequently homosexual male tourists from the USA to Haiti. Within Africa, migrant prostitutes and truck drivers have been particularly important in the spread of HIV. Sex tourists and businessmen have carried the virus from the USA, Europe and Africa to Asia. In many developed countries, the most rapidly increasing category of HIV infections and AIDS cases is heterosexually acquired infections and the majority of these (up to three-quarters) are due to sex with a partner abroad (most commonly in Africa).

Behavioural disinhibition risk compensation

As discussed in the context of circumcision and pre-exposure prophylaxis, it is possible that when people perceive that a particular HIV prevention method is effective (even if it is only partially effective), they may stray from using other methods that are already known to be equally or more effective (for example, using male condoms, delaying their first experience of sexual intercourse and reducing their number of sexual partners). Such behavioural disinhibition (or risk compensation) may slow the progress of new interventions in reducing HIV infection rates at the individual level and the population level (43, 144). This concern is relevant to all prevention modalities - behavioural, biomedical and social - and for those who are participating in studies and those who are not (145). However, we must not let fears over disinhibition impede efforts to develop and implement interventions because we need as many effective tools as possible to tackle the HIV AIDS epidemic. It is...

Prevention of Hepatitis B

General measures are based on knowledge of the mode of transmission of hepatitis B and include measures to prevent blood-to-blood contact, the use of sterile syringes, needles and other implements, screening of blood and blood products, protected casual sexual intercourse and other precautions dictated by the propensity for spread of this infection and the huge number of asymptomatic carriers of HBV in the population. The single most effective measure for prevention is active immunisation.

Active Immunisation

Immunisation against hepatitis B is now recognised as a high priority in preventive medicine in all countries and strategies for immunisation are being revised. Universal vaccination of infants and adolescents is under examination as the strategy to control the transmission of this infection. More than 90 countries now offer hepatitis B vaccine to all children, including the USA, Canada, Italy, France and most western European countries. However, immunisation against hepatitis B is at present recommended in a number of countries with a low prevalence of hepatitis B only to groups that are at an increased risk of acquiring this infection. These groups include individuals requiring repeated transfusions of blood or blood products, prolonged inpatient treatment, patients who require frequent tissue penetration or need repeated circulatory access, patients with natural or acquired immune deficiency and patients with malignant diseases. Viral hepatitis is an occupational hazard among...

Definitions of important terms

At risk of pregnancy refers to women who are sexually active, not infecund, not pregnant and not amenorrhoeic. Technically speaking, the denominator should relate to the population at risk of pregnancy as cited above in practice, however, information is generally obtained of women who are currently either married or in a stable relationship.

The effectiveness of sex education and HIV education interventions in schools in developing countries

Findings Twenty-two intervention evaluations met the inclusion criteria 17 were based on a curriculum and 5 were not, and 19 were implemented primarily by adults and 3 by peers. These 22 interventions significantly improved 21 out of 55 sexual behaviours measured. Only one of the interventions (a non-curriculum-based peer-led intervention) increased any measure of reported sexual intercourse 7 interventions delayed the reported onset of sex 3 reduced the reported number of sexual partners and 1 reduced the reported frequency of sexual activity. Furthermore, 16 of the 22 interventions significantly delayed sex, reduced the frequency of sex, decreased the number of sexual partners, increased the use of condoms or contraceptives or reduced the incidence of unprotected sex. Of the 17 curriculum-based interventions, 13 had most of the characteristics believed to be important according to research in developed and developing countries and were taught by adults. Of these 13 studies, 11...

Ari Eastern Perspective

Tantric sex does not have a goal of orgasm. It is about what the definition of tantra is the expansion of knowledge. In Reich's orgasm cycle, the energy is discharged. As you see the sexual sensation as energy, a plateau is reached. Then through sexual activity, the charge is built up again and at the moment of charge you turn your attention around and see the sensations as energy, another plateau. Working at higher and higher plateaus without discharging the energy causes an expansion of knowledge which is tantra. Many books have been written on this subject, and I cannot say what happens for a woman. For a man, however, when he sees the sexual energy as energy and plateaus, he will generally loose his erection. Then the sexual process must continue on to build charge. The purpose of expansion of knowledge must be clear, otherwise there will be a discharge (orgasm) at an early stage. There is a wonderful phrase from an ancient yoga text, paraphrased, If at the moment of orgasm, one...

Introduction and background

In many respects, schools are well placed to achieve the ultimate goal of decreasing HIV prevalence among youths. In many societies they are the one institution that is regularly attended by most young people. Of those youths who attend school, most do so before they begin having sexual intercourse, and many are enrolled in school when they actually initiate sex. Thus, schools provide an opportunity for interventions to achieve high coverage of young people before or around the time they become sexually active they also offer the opportunity to encourage young people to delay the onset of sexual activity and increase their use of condoms and contraceptives after sexual initiation. Of course, school-based interventions are less useful where many or most adolescents are no longer in school. influencing them, such as the values, attitudes and perceived norms about sex and condom use (8, 10).

Categories of interventions

Non-curriculum-based interventions include a variety of activities such as one-on-one spontaneous or opportunistic counselling about sexual activity and HIV while the student is on school grounds, school health fairs, dramas that present stories about HIV during school assemblies, the use of posters or leaflets, or combinations of these. Some of these activities may be easier to implement in schools, at least initially, because they may not require that teachers be trained. In addition, some people have argued that spontaneous one-on-one interaction between educators and youths may be more effective, given the personal nature of sexual behaviour. However, such interactions require a degree of sensitivity, skill and empathy that may be beyond the scope of many implementers or may necessitate a high level of training.

Threshold of evidence needed for widespread implementation

Overall, because of the potential ability of school-based interventions to be implemented broadly and to reach large proportions of young people, these interventions should require low-to-moderate thresholds of evidence before being recommended for widespread implementation. However, because the discussion of sexual activity, especially condom use, in schools may be controversial, the threshold varies somewhat according to the community, the Studies sometimes reported results for multiple measures of each behaviour, for different time periods, for different subgroups or for combinations of these. Thus, some studies reported only one or a small number of significant positive effects on behaviour as well as a large majority of results that were not significant. To avoid presenting only the positive results and to provide a more balanced overview, the following rules for summarizing results were adopted. First, for different measures of the same outcome behaviour all measures across all...

Sexual and Urological Dysfunction

The incidence of erectile and ejaculation dysfunction after surgery is reported to be very high after APE, ranging from 18 to 92 40, 51, 61 , while it is lower after AR (ranging from 9 to 30 ) 45, 62, 63 . Loss of desire, diminished sexual activity and anor-gasmia are also reported.

Combination Oral Contraception

Oral contraceptive pills are the most common method of birth control used by women in the United States, with approximately 11.7 million current users (30.6 of the sexually active population). () Over 80 of women born in the United States since 1945 have used oral contraceptive pills at some time in their lives, and this method is currently used by more than 100 million women worldwide.

Background and Epidemiology of Hepatitis Viruses in Correctional Settings

In the United States, the majority of cases of hepatitis A occur through person-to-person transmission during communitywide outbreaks (Bell et al., 1998 Fiore et al., 2006). HAV transmission can occur through close personal contact (e.g., household contact, sexual contact, drug use, or children playing), and contaminated food or water (e.g., infected food-handlers or raw shellfish). The most frequently reported source of infection (12-26 ) is household or sexual contact with a person with HAV infection. Other risk groups include injection and non-injection drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM). Approximately 50 of persons with hepatitis A have no source identified for their infection. Hepatitis A outbreaks among MSM are frequently reported, and cyclic outbreaks occur in urban areas of the United States (Henning, Bell, Braun, & Barker, 1995 CDC, 1998b). HAV-infected MSM report more frequent oral-anal contact, longer duration of sexual activity, and a larger number of sex...

Influence on Reproductive Behavior

Castration experiments have linked the testes with a male mating behavior pattern in animals. The sexually active male animal aggressively seeks and attempts to mount the female, whether she is receptive or not. The castrated male retains the ability to mount a female but loses the aggressiveness and does not persistently pursue females. The male may assume the more submissive female behavior and even engage in homosexual encounters. Normally, the release of reproductive hormones in the male is noncyclic, whereas in the female it is cyclic. Castrated animals begin to exhibit the female, cyclic pattern of hormone release. The hormonal influence is confirmed by administering androgens (male hormones) to the castrated animals. Male mating behavior and the noncyclic release ofhormones returns.

Prevention And Control

As with all the sexually transmitted infections, prevention requires changes in the way that people behave. Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic some 15 years ago, a growing barrage of advice and exhortation to practise 'safe sex' has filled the world's media, and it seems more than a coincidence that the incidence of tricho-moniasis, which had barely changed during the

Negative Cultural Stereotypes

In spite of these scientific data, many heterosexuals (especially men) still harbor negative feelings about homosexuality. This phenomenon is called homophobia. Some of this fear, disgust, and hatred is attributable to the incorrect belief that many homosexuals are child molesters. In fact, more than 90 percent of pedophiles are heterosexual. Another source of homophobia is the fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This deadly, sexually transmitted disease is more easily transmitted through anal intercourse than through vaginal intercourse and thus has spread more rapidly among homosexuals than heterosexuals. Education about safe sex practices, however, has dramatically reduced transmission rates in homosexual communities. Sexologists have not been able to avoid the political controversies surrounding their field, making the study of a difficult subject even harder. Research will continue, but no one should expect fast and simple explanations. Sexuality, perhaps more than...

Reducing the risk of infection

Whenever sexual activity does not conform to the ideal, measures should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, for example by the use of male or female condoms. Such measures do not assure absolute protection. Donors who belong to high-risk groups and their sexual partners should be excluded. Donated blood should be screened to avoid transfusing infected specimens. patterns of behaviour, especially sexual activities A strategy should be developed to educate the public about 'safe sex', promoting abstinence in young persons and stable monogamous relationships among adults but advising the use of the condom where people deviate from the ideal. Major efforts should be made to reduce the use of blood transfusion to the absolute minimum and to ensure that all transfused products are safe. In developed countries some patients store some of their own blood for use during planned surgery or childbirth, but most developing countries do not have the appropriate

Cultural And Subgroup Differences

There may be subgroups of patients with particular problems. Older patients may have different needs and concerns from younger ones, and may also interpret questions differently. There may be major cultural differences, and a questionnaire developed in one part of the world may be inappropriate in another. For example, respondents from Mediterranean countries can be less willing to answer questions about sexual activity than are those from northern Europe. Subjects from Oriental cultures may respond to some items very differently from Europeans.

Other Important Opportunities for HIV Prevention

Though there are no sanctioned in-prison jail syringe exchange programs in the United States, it is well documented that (1) injection drug use occurs in the correctional setting, (2) sterile IDU paraphernalia is extremely difficult to obtain, and (3) as with sexual activity, the risk is greater on the inside as a result of higher prevalence. Different educational HIV prevention efforts have measured their successes with different outcomes. Though the bottom line outcome is not getting infected, there are a myriad of other outcomes that indirectly impact HIV incidence. Outcomes that should be considered for evaluation of programs include condom use and use of sterile injection equipment both inside and after release. The next level of outcomes among those who are released include decreased alcohol drug use with sexual activity, and if available, use of needle exchange programs, substance abuse and mental health treatment. Finally, with many prisoners not connected with community...

Jane T Bertranda Rebecca Anhangb

Findings Ofthe 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners.

Community Impact of STI Screening in Corrections

The San Francisco jail chlamydia screening program provides evidence of the potential impact STI screening in jails can have on the community (Barry et al., 2006). As mentioned earlier, SFDPH began targeted screening in the jails in the fall of 2006. They compared the prevalence of chlamydia detected among sexually active young women (aged 25 and younger) seen in a community clinic (Clinic S) located in a neighborhood with high jail testing density compared to a community clinic located in a neighborhood with low jail testing density (Clinic O). The prevalence of infection in these two clinics was compared between 1997 and 2004. The initial prevalence at Clinic S was four times higher than at Clinic O. During the evaluation period, the prevalence of infection at Clinic S declined significantly from 16.1 in 1997 to 7.8 in 2004. The prevalence of infection remained stable at Clinic O at 4.7 during the same period with only minor vacillations. No other STD control programs, other than...

Sexual Dysfunction Following Mesorectal Resection for Cancer

Surgery for rectal cancer may decrease the sexual function but the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) with autonomic nerve preservation has significantly increased the number of men with preserved post-operative sexual function 28 . In a prospective study of sexual function before and after rectal cancer surgery, TME significantly preserved the ability to achieve orgasm and to ejaculate when compared to standard rectal cancer surgery 29 . In a retrospective evaluation of sexual function following TME, 86 of patients less than 60 years of age and 67 of patients older than 60 years maintained their ability to engage in sexual intercourse, while 87 of all men maintained their ability to have an erection following TME. Retrograde ejaculation occurs rarely but does not diminish the patient's capacity for normal sexual activity 30 . The effects of TME for rectal cancer on female sexual function are less clear. and 91 achieving orgasm 31 . A higher proportion of women patients...

Effect of Laparoscopic Technique on Genitourinary Function

A recent study 32 investigated the frequency of bladder and sexual dysfunction, secondary to pelvic nerve injury, following laparoscopically assisted and conventional open mesorectal resection for cancer in a randomised trial of laparoscopic vs. open resection. A retrospective analysis of bladder and sexual function before and after operation was performed by means of postal questionnaires and telephone interviews. Of the responders, 40 patients had undergone laparoscopically assisted resection and 40 had had an open operation. No significant deterioration in bladder function following an operation was observed, although two patients in the laparoscopic group required long-term intermittent self-catheterisation. A significant difference in male, but not female, sexual function was noted, with seven of 15 sexually active men in the laparoscopic group reporting impotence or impaired ejaculation, compared with only one of 22 patients having an open operation. All patients with bladder or...

Summary of studies of effectiveness

The evidence supports the effectiveness of mass media interventions in increasing the knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, improving self-efficacy in terms of condom use, influencing social norms about the acceptability of young people discussing reproductive health, increasing interpersonal communication about HIV and prevention behaviours, increasing the use of condoms, and boosting awareness of health providers. The studies reviewed in this article did not tend to show significant effects with regard to creating awareness that healthy looking people may have HIV AIDS or improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence. They also did not show significant effects in terms of increasing the proportion of adolescents who delay their first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners.

Issues of interpretation

Conclusions on syphilis prevalence in the general population based on sample surveys of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics should be made with caution. First, the numerator is not representative of all pregnant and non-pregnant women. Second, the sample is not necessarily representative of all pregnant women, only of women who choose to attend for antenatal care. Third, syphilis serology may not correlate directly with STI prevalence. STIs are a major cause of infertility in developing countries, and infertile women are not effectively accessible through antenatal care. This may lead to an underestimation of the STI prevalence in all women. Conversely, since non-pregnant women include those who are not sexually active and therefore are not at risk of STI, the prevalence among pregnant women may be an overestimation of the prevalence in all women. Moreover, it is representative of this group of women only where all pregnant women are screened and not just those judged by...

Theoretical Explanations

The many theories which attempt to explain how phobias develop can be grouped under three general headings those which stress unconscious emotional conflicts, those which explain phobias based on the principles of learning, and those which consider biological factors. For Sigmund Freud, phobias represented the external manifestation of unconscious internal emotional conflicts which had their origin in early childhood. These conflicts typically involved the inhibition of primitive sexual feelings.

United States Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations

Recommendations for population-based screening that earned grade A (strongly recommended) or grade B (recommended) in a 2006 review for adult men and women are the following obesity, depression, and high blood pressure screening for persons of all ages, syphilis screening for persons at increased risk, colorectal cancer screening at age 50, diabetes type 2 screening for adults with hypertension or hyperlipidemia, and lipid disorder screening per age and gender (men, age 35 women, age 45) ( Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2006). Additional procedures are recommended for women breast cancer screening (mammography) at age 40, cervical cancer screening if sexually active, chlamydial infection screening women 25 and younger or at increased risk, and osteoporosis screening for women 65 or older, postmenopausal, or at increased risk for osteoporotic fractures. Men age 65-75 with a history of ever smoking should be screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm via...

Controlling the Menstrual Cycle

For women who are sexually active with men it is important to carry pregnancy tests in the travel medicine kit. The urine pregnancy kits are not always available and the reliability of the kits in some countries is not known so it is important for women to take their own. Pregnancy tests have a limited shelf life the date must be checked to make sure the test has not expired. Environmental extremes might also affect the accuracy of the test so it is important to keep the test kits in a safe place and to check the manufacturer's recommendations regarding storage. As with most self-diagnostic tests, the procedure should be reviewed with the traveler prior to travel.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The importance of safe sex practices and a discussion of the risks associated with the range of sexually transmitted diseases pertinent to the destination should be included as part of the pretravel visit (Hawkes and Hart, 1998). Women should be reminded that they are at a higher risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease from an infected partner owing to the fluid dynamics of sex. In general, women suffer disproportionately to men from the long-term complications of sexually transmitted diseases. Complications include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. To prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases women should avoid casual sex and always practice safe sex by using condoms, no matter what other means of contraception are being used simultaneously. High-quality latex condoms are an essential part of a travelers medical kit, regardless of gender and regardless of whether or not sexual activity is planned. A male or female condom made of...

Antecedents of Juvenile Detention

McCurley and Snyder (2006) report that family structure is a better predictor of self-reported problem behaviors, such as running away from home, sexual activity, major theft, assault, and arrest, than race or ethnicity. One reason for this may be that children living in single-parent homes are often at greater risk of abuse and or neglect. Research (Lauritsen, 2003) indicates that juveniles in single-parent families experienced a 50 greater risk of violence than those

A focus for this paper

It was clearly not possible to include all groups of young people who might be at particular risk in all epidemic scenarios. It was therefore decided to focus on groups most at risk in areas of low-level and concentrated epidemics, since many of the groups of young people most at risk in generalized epidemics are likely to have some access to information, skills and services through existing channels. Within low-level and concentrated epidemics it was decided to focus on young injecting drug users, young sex workers and young men who have sex with men, since data are more likely to be available for these groups than other at-risk groups, such as mobile populations or prisoners. However, it needs to be emphasized that there is significant overlap among these groups. For example, young men who have sex with men may be sex workers, and sex workers may be injecting drug users. general populations of sex workers, injecting drug users and men who have sex with men in developing countries...

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Interventions implemented in developing countries that aim to reduce the risk of HIV transmission among injecting drug users, sex workers and men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (categories 1 and 4) Interventions in developing countries were aimed at reducing the risk of HIV transmission among young people aged 1024 who are injecting drug users, sex workers or men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (categories 1 and 2) Interventions in developed countries that aimed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in young (10-24 years) injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men by providing increased access to information, skills and services for HIV prevention (category 3) A less extensive search was made for studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions in developing countries directed towards injecting drug users, sex...

Studies focusing on atrisk young people in developed countries

Four evaluation studies from developed countries were reviewed to determine whether they corroborated the findings from studies in developing countries. Two of these studies focused on interventions directed towards young men who have sex with men (28, 29), and two focused on young injecting drug users (30, 31). No studies of interventions directed towards young sex workers were identified. Studies in Bulgaria and the Russian Federation targeted the leaders of previously identified social networks of men who have sex with men and trained them as peer educators (28, 29). Risk surveys were administered to members of their network and to members of a control network. Among members of the network in the intervention group, the frequency of unprotected intercourse dropped significantly as did the proportion of men engaging in unprotected intercourse with multiple partners (29).

Studies of interventions for atrisk populations in developing countries that did not disaggregate data by age

Thirty studies were identified that examined interventions directed towards general populations most at risk of becoming infected with HIV, of which 21 were interventions directed towards sex workers, 5 towards injecting drug users and 4 towards men who have sex with men. There were 16 studies from Asia, 8 from Africa, and 6 from Latin America. 9.3.4.3 Men who have sex with men Four interventions targeting men who have sex with men were identified from Brazil (61), India and Morocco (both mentioned in Tawil) (21) and Puerto Rico (62). The intervention in Morocco included 600 men and the intervention in India included 3 000 men reached through peer outreach programmes focusing on safer sex messages, condom distribution and providing STI care at a drop-in centre (a type 4 intervention). Increased safer sex practices were reported in post-intervention analyses at both sites, with these effects being statistically significant in India but not in Morocco. The two interventions in Latin...

Laparoscopic And Perineal Prostatectomy

Minimally invasive surgery has been popularized recently as patients generally return to work faster, have decreased postoperative pain and have shortened hospital stays. The laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, introduced in 1997 by Schuessler et al.,47 has not produced any advantage over retro-pubic prostatectomy in terms of return of sexual function. Schuessler initially reported laparoscopic prostatectomy on nine patients with preservation of potency in 50 of those patients potent preoperatively.47 Guillonneau in his laparo-scopic series reported a postoperative erection rate at 45 after only 3 months of follow-up.48 Salomon et al. found 25 of their patients postoperatively able to engage in sexual intercourse.49 While these initial potency rates fare well within the range seen for retropubic prostatectomy, the increased surgical time, steep learning curve, increased cost of intrumen-tation and similar surgical outcome make laparoscopic prostatectomy a procedure in evolution.47-49

Data sources and collection methods

Developing countries with high fertility and high HIV prevalence, and where the principal mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual contact, antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees are the preferred population for routine surveillance of the general population of sexually active adults.

Importance of Sampling Procedures

Thus, when evaluating survey data, a researcher must examine how the responses were obtained and what population was investigated. Major polling organizations such as the Gallup organization typically are careful to obtain representative samples of people in the United States. Gallup polls are frequently conducted to survey the voting public's opinions about the popularity of a presidential candidate or a given policy. Many other surveys, however, such as surveys that are published in popular magazines, have limited generalizability because the results are based on people who read the particular magazine and are sufficiently motivated to complete and mail in the questionnaire. When Redbook, for example, asks readers to write in to say whether they have ever had an affair, the results may be interesting but would not give a very accurate estimate of the true extent of extramarital sexual activity in the United States. An example of an inaccurate sampling technique was a survey by...

Issues of interpretation and limitations

In the prompted approach, specific questions are asked of the respondent, for example Can people protect themselves from getting the AIDS virus by using a condom every time they have sex While this approach is better than the spontaneous approach from a standardization perspective, it is clearly a leading question and will tend to overestimate knowledge. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that the respondents who respond no to such a question are those with the most

Background and Accomplishments

Horney's theories on female psychology developed from a series of papers she wrote over a thirteen-year period in response to Freud's views on female sexuality. The last paper was published after Horney emigrated to the United States from Germany at a highly productive point in her career.

Sexual Basis of Neurosis

During years of conducting analysis, Freud became convinced of the sexual basis of neurosis. He believed that sexual experiences occurring prior to puberty and stored in the unconscious as memories produced conflict that later caused certain neurotic conditions. These ideas, often referred to as Freud's seduction theory, were used to explain hysterical symptoms such as paralysis, blindness, inability to understand the spoken word (receptive aphasia), and sexual dysfunction as the result of sexual abuse, probably occurring before ages six to eight. It is important to note, however, that Freud later revised his thinking on infantile sexuality and concluded that it is the thought or psychic reality of the individual that counts more than the physical reality of events. In other words, a person might fantasize a seduction, store the fantasy in unconscious memory (repress it), and have that con-flictual memory cause neurosis just as readily as the memory of an actual seduction. Some recent...

The Goals of Psychiatric Rehabilitation

The PsyR practitioner believes in the importance of achieving the highest quality of life possible for every individual regardless of the stage of his or her illness or the severity of his or her symptoms. The concept of quality of life refers to both the individual's subjective sense of life, for example, how the individual feels about his or her living arrangement, and to the objective, for example, yearly income. Much of this research is based on the Lehman (1983, 1988) quality-of-life interview, which takes aspects such as symptom level into account. This goal goes hand in hand with optimism about recovery and community integration, despite the presence of a handicapping condition. The presence of symptoms should not detract from the importance of those things that help ensure a reasonable quality of life such as social support, companionship, employment, recreation, food, shelter, clothing, and an active sex life. For the PsyR worker, quality of life is an important goal...

Studies focusing on young people most at risk in developing countries

While there is a wealth of information from cross-sectional studies conducted among at-risk young people, there are few published evaluations of interventions targeting these groups in developing countries. No studies were found in peer-reviewed journals, and the 11 studies that were identified were all in programme reports or other grey literature. Three of these were from Africa, two from Asia and six were from Latin America. Target groups included sex workers (5 studies), men who have sex with men (1 study), injecting drug users (3 studies) and youths living on the street (2 studies). Unfortunately, only four ofthese studies met the inclusion criteria (Table 9.1). The studies that met the inclusion criteria came from Africa (1 study) and from Latin America (3 studies). One of the Latin American studies examined interventions directed to sex workers one examined interventions targeted at men who have sex with men and two examined interventions targeted at street youths. 9.3.2.3 Men...

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Ethics

Code cannot do, however, is provide definitive answers for all situations that have ethical implications. Sometimes the guidelines are very clear the USPRA code clearly states that it is unethical for a practitioner to have a sexual relationship with a client. It also cautions practitioners not to otherwise exploit their relationships with consumers. So it would be inappropriate for a practitioner who had a side business selling health care products to solicit sales to consumers.

Drug Delivery Vaginal

A major problem with using the vagina as a route for systemic drug delivery is that as the epithelium is highly sensitive to oestradiol and its thickness changes throughout the menstrual cycle, so the extent and rate of drug absorption will also vary. This has been reported for vaginal absorption of steroids10 and vidarabine has been shown to have a 5100 times higher permeability coefficient during the early dioestrus stage than during the oestrus stage in guinea pigs11. Other problems are gender specificity, personal hygiene and the influence of sexual intercourse.

Marburg Virus Disease

Torus Medicine

Slavia were traced to direct contact with blood, organs or tissue cell cultures from a batch of African green monkeys (Cercopithicus aethiops) that had been trapped in Uganda. Several secondary cases occurred in hospital personnel by contact with the blood of patients. One further case was apparently transmitted by sexual intercourse 83 days after the initial illness, and virus was isolated from the semen. The case fatality rate was 29 for the primary cases, but no deaths occurred in the six secondary cases. This previously unrecognised disease was caused by an infectious agent probably new to medical science. Three more cases were reported in Johannesburg in 1975, in two young Australians who crossed central Africa, and a nurse treating them. One of the primary cases died. There have been two other detected recurrences of Marburg virus disease in 1980 and in 1987, all in travellers in rural Africa, and none has led to extensive transmission.

Gynecological Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain

Adnexal Mass

The main gynecological conditions causing acute abdominal pain are functional ovarian cysts, ovarian torsion, and hydrometrocolpos. Transabdominal US will commonly show the lesion. Transvaginal US should not be routinely done as a primary investigation in adolescent girls, but may supplement the abdominal examination in sexually active patients. Pelvic inflammatory disease is increasing in incidence in sexually active adolescents, and is due to either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea infection. Infection ascends from the cervix to involve the endometrium and fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes become edematous and hyperemic

Psychosexual development

Main points Freud's theory of psychosexual development had its origins in, and was a generalization of, Josef Breuer's earlier discovery that traumatic childhood events could have devastating negative effects upon the adult. This view assumed that early childhood sexual experiences were the crucial factors in the determination of the adult personality. Freud's believed that from the moment of birth, the infant is driven in his actions by the desire for bodily sexual pleasure. Initially, infants gain such release, and derive such pleasure, through the act of sucking. Freud termed this period the oral stage of development. This is followed by a stage in which the locus of pleasure or energy release is the anus, particularly in the act of defecation, and this he termed the anal stage. Then the young child develops an interest in its sexual organs as a site of pleasure and an accompanying sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, while developing a subtle hatred for the parent...

Psychological Models of Abnormality

The psychoanalytic model opened up areas for discussion that were previously taboo and helped people to understand that some of their motivations are outside their own awareness. For example, dissociative disorders occur when a person's thoughts and feelings are dissociated, or separated, from conscious awareness by memory loss or a change in identity. In dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality, the individual alternates between an original or primary personality and one or more secondary or subordinate personalities. A psychoanalytic model would see dissociative identity disorder as stemming from massive repression to ward off unacceptable impulses, particularly those of a sexual nature. These yearnings increase during adolescence and adulthood, until the person finally expresses them, often in a guilt-inducing sexual act. Then, normal forms of repression are ineffective in blocking out this guilt, so the person blocks the acts and related thoughts...

Neurostimulationcaver Map

Kim et al. reported that a positive CaverMap response poorly predicted recovery of potency after radical prostatec-tomy.23 A positive CaverMap response was noted in 77 of men but only 18 reported regaining sufficient potency for sexual intercourse.23 None of the patients who had both neurovascular bundles excised could achieve erections post-operatively. This group of patients also had a negative Caver-Map response, which validates the neurogenic component to erectile dysfunction. Because the high CaverMap response rate did not correlate with the low potency rate postopera-tively, it is hypothesized that erectile function is most likely a multifactorial process.

Epidemiology of Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis and Corrections Overlapping Populations

Chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to serious long-term sequelae in women, including chronic pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy (Hook & Handsfield, 1999 Stamm, 1999). Additionally, these infections increase the susceptibility and transmissibility of HIV infection (Fleming & Wasserheit, 1999). Annual chlamydia screening of sexually active women aged 25 and younger is recommended (CDC, 2006b), but there are no guidelines for screening men. Because most chlamydial and gonococcal infections in both females and males are asymptomatic (Hook & Handsfield, 1999 Stamm, 1999), screening and treatment of asymptomatic infections is essential for disease prevention and control. Large-scale screening programs that have been in place for several years have decreased both community chlamydia prevalence and disease outcomes (Addiss et al., 1993 Mertz et al., 1997). The most effective method to control chlamydia is routine screening in high- volume,...

Reproductive Health Needs of Incarcerated Juveniles

Adolescents in correctional facilities report becoming sexually active at earlier ages and partaking in risky sexual behaviors more frequently than their nonincarcerated peers (Strack & Alexander, 2000). In one study of juvenile offenders aged 14-18, 87 of the sample reported being sexually active. Over one-third reported having sex before they were 12 years old and 57 before they were 13 years old. The median age for first sex was 12 for males and 13 for females. Of those who reported having sexual intercourse, half (49 ) had had 6 or more partners in their lifetimes, including 22 with 6-10 partners and 16 with more than 20 partners. Of all the sexually active youth, over half had had sex in the past month and 42 reported having multiple partners in the past 3 months (Strack & Alexander, 2000). In another study of sexual debut among female juvenile offenders, results showed that the mean age of sexual debut was 13. The mean number of sex partners (lifetime) was 8.8 (Crosby et al.,...

Common Infections in the Traveling Diabetic

Urinary tract infections are more common in women with diabetes, particularly if fluid intake has been decreased. Risk during travel may be associated with increased sexual activity on vacation Gram-negative enteric flora or enterococci are the major offenders, unless there has been prior use of antibiotics or vaginal can-didasis is present. Upper tract disease (renal carbuncle, perinephric abscess or renal papillary necrosis) occurs more commonly in diabetic patients. It should be anticipated by utilization of a 2 week antibiotic regimen for such infections, rather than short-course therapy.

Body image and sexual intimacy

Another important area in a couple's relationship is that of sexual intimacy. The association between body image and sexual functioning is a good illustration of the reciprocal nature of interpersonal influences in skin disease (Weiderman, 2002). Common sense dictates that good sex is about confidence, feeling good about yourself and your body. Yet, many dermatology patients struggle with physical intimacy and often have sex lives that are fraught with difficulties. plunge about sex for a long time, so finally____I suggested it and just said, But there's something A negative body image can damage the perception of self as a sexual being and thus disrupt intimacy in a relationship. Gupta and Gupta (1997) investigated the impact of psoriasis on the sexual activities of 120 sufferers and found that 40 experienced a decline in sexual activity and had higher scores on depression than non-affected patients. Embarrassment over unsightly or painful lesions was most apparent during intercourse...

Behavioral Influences On Preterm Birth

For a number of these behaviors, observational studies are inherently limited, no matter how carefully conducted and how attentive investigators are to controlling for other exposures (which are themselves difficult to measure accurately and to thus fully control). Nonetheless, when considered in conjunction with other lines of research involving mechanistic studies and randomized trials, observational studies of behavioral influences on preterm birth, when it is feasible to conduct such studies, have been highly informative. The subsections that follow review tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, nutrition, sexual activity, physical activity, employment, and douching.

Road Rage and Air Rage

Aggressive behavior in nearly all species is rooted in sexuality. The male is usually more aggressive than the female. The sexual act is fundamentally an act of male aggression. Males during their sexual prime maintain the high levels of testosterone that assure the continuance of their species but that also result in aggressive, sometimes antisocial behavior.

Sexual practice for individuals with fantasies or as a guided practice in pairs or in a group Singh 1979

Step I Either remember a time, notice your present sexual experience, or have a sexual fantasy. Step III Experience the size and shape of the sexual feelings. If you have sexual fantasies (I know none of you do, but if you do) focus your attention on the sexual fantasy, or the story or the object of your sexual fantasy. Your mind is creating impressions of the sexual fantasy in some form or other. When I was celibate for about five years, I noticed that during the first three years I was

Treatment of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy

Sildenafil, similar to retropubic prostatectomy patients, remains the first-line agent to treat erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy to the prostate. Zelefsky et al. reported significant improvement in the firmness of erection, durability of erection and increased frequency of sexual activity after silde-nafil use.77 Patients who had at least partial erections prior to Kedia etal. reported similar findings. The majority of patients after radiotherapy (71 ) were able to achieve an erection sufficient for vaginal penetration.67 Sildenafil had a greater effect on those patients who were sexually active prior to radiation treatment and had to be titrated up to the 100 mg dose in 80 of patients. Weber etal. found that the response rate to sildenafil increased progressively throughout the study period.78 From 1 to 5 weeks postoperatively, the response rate increased from 40 , 57 , 66 , 69 and 74 . This suggests that using sildenafil after radiation should not be discontinued prematurely,...

Behavioral and Social Emotional Problems

Adolescents and adults born preterm are less likely to demonstrate risk-taking behaviors than controls who were born full term. A recent study of young adults born from 1980 to 1983 in Britain found that fewer of those born with birth weights less than 1,500 grams than controls born full term drank alcohol or used illicit drugs, but there were no differences in the rates of smoking or sexual activity (Cooke, 2004). In the United States, young adults with birth weights less than 1,500 grams reported lower rates of alcohol and illicit drug use than controls with normal birth weights, but the two groups showed similar rates of tobacco use (57 and 50 percent of the men, respectively, and 40 and 48 percent of the women, respectively) (Hack et al., 2002). The men in the sample were also less likely to violate the law (37 and 52 percent, respectively), and this was primarily due to the lower rates of illicit drug use and truancy. The women were less likely to have had intercourse by age 20...

Horney and feminist thought

These words, from Horney's first book, Feminine Psychology published in 1936, are echoes of earlier essays written in the 1920s, soon after Freud first published his theories of female sexuality. Horney believed that classic Freudian psychoanalysis (which she had then recently undergone with Freud disciple Karl Abraham) inherently perceived women as imperfect because it was the work of a male (Freud) in a male-dominated society. Horney saw Freud's hypotheses regarding female sexuality were nothing more than an attempt to curb the power struggle between the sexes. Horney made every effort to stimulate debate on this difference between Freud and feminists during her years at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, but was unsuccessful. Both Freud in Vienna and her male colleagues at the Institute in Berlin allowed the issue to die a natural death by simply ignoring it. For Horney, though, it did not die.

Providing Comprehensive Adolescent Friendly Health Care to Incarcerated Juveniles

Juvenile justice facilities detain youth of varying ages. The needs of these youth differ by stage of development and mental ability. The early adolescent (usually ranging from 10 to 13 years old) is mostly very concrete in his her thought process. Therefore, counseling and behavioral interventions must reflect this concrete thinking. For instance, a tobacco prevention cessation program for a young person in this age group should focus on the physical unpleasantness associated with smoking, i.e., bad breath and yellowing teeth, instead of the later health complications that may resound with an older teenager. At this age, the majority of young people will begin the process of physical sexual maturation but this does not mean that the individual has not already initiated sexual activity.

Puberty

Perhaps no single event during the adolescent years has as dramatic or widespread effects as the realization of sexuality. The lives of both boys and girls become wrapped in this new dimension. Adolescence is a time of sexual exploration and experimentation, of sexual fantasies and sexual realities, of incorporating sexuality into one's identity. These processes determine adolescents' comfort with their own emerging sexuality as well as with that of others. Adolescents are also beginning to be involved in intimate relationships, a context in which sexual activity often occurs. In recent decades, many of the milestones by which adulthood is defined and measured full-time employment, economic independence, domestic partnership marriage, and childbearing are attained at later ages in people's lives than they were in earlier generations, while puberty begins at earlier ages. Thus, adolescents face many years between the onset of puberty, fertility, and the natural intensification of...

The Oedipus Complex

Lacan, like Freud, believed that individuals are socialized by passing through the three stages of the Oedipus complex seduction, the primal scene, and the castration phase, the last of which Lacan reconfigured as the Father's 'No'. In the so-called seduction phase, the child is attracted to the original object of desire, which is the body of the mother. In the primal scene or primal stage the child witnesses the father having sexual intercourse with the mother, and this is followed by the castration phase, wherein the father restricts the child's access to the mother under threat of castration. The Law of the Father or Father's 'No' causes the child to redirect desire from the mother to what Lacan calls the Other a hypothetical place in the unconscious which allows the individual to later project desire onto other persons other, that is, than the mother.

Condom use

Perhaps the most notable example of a social intervention aimed at preventing the spread of HIV is the Thai 100 condom use programme, which made condom use mandatory in all brothels, even while prostitution remained technically illegal. The promotion of condom use was coupled with an emphasis on decreasing visits to sex workers and other non-regular partners, particularly among Thai military recruits. But the Thai national response, like that in Uganda, also included national sentinel surveillance, mass media campaigns, community mobilization and interaction between nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations and industry, as well as strong public statements and resource commitments made by political leaders at the highest levels (128). As a result of this comprehensive social strategy, the rate of Thai military recruits having sex with commercial sex workers decreased from 57.1 in 1991 to 23.8 in 1995 of those who continued to have sex with commercial sex workers,...

Marital Status

Another aspect of marriage that has been examined as it relates to prostate cancer is sexual activity. Although the data are inconclusive, some hypothesized that the increased sexual activity that most married individuals enjoy, imparted a protective effect against the development of prostate cancer.42 Mandel and Schuman (1987) conducted a case-control study of approximately 700 men and concluded that those with prostate cancer had higher rates of venereal disease in their partners, more sexual encounters with prostitutes and an overall lower frequency of intercourse than their controls.43

Working with anger

In 1979, while living in the monastery in India, the environment was set up to increase the energy by avoiding talking and sex, and little food was available, etc. There was a lot of emotional pain since nobody there had a way to escape. I'm sure we can all relate to feeling anger and running to get chocolate, or to a movie, or having sex to handle the emotional state. With no escape, one day I felt so much anger that my body felt like it was in flames and I was on fire. My friend Mark Mordin, who had lived in India for twelve years, said, Be the fire, rather than the fuel. What I did was merge with the fire rather than being the one that was being burned. Quite instantly, I felt calm, relaxed and more centered. Since then, while working with clients or in workshops, I suggest to people who are feeling overwhelmed by anger to notice where in their body they are experiencing this emotion, and to notice its size and shape since emotions are made of energy in different shapes and forms....

Example

Consider the use of morning-after pills, i.e., oral contraceptives used in high doses after sexual intercourse to prevent implantation of a zygote. This is a difficult and controversial topic in the ethics of professional relationships that may clarify how perspectives are handled in the three types of professional relationships.

Findings

Finally, only three of the interventions were abstinence-only interventions the remainder of the interventions encouraged abstinence but also discussed or promoted the use of condoms or contraception for young people who chose to be sexually active. Targeted frequency of sexual activity, condom use, number of partners Targeted sexual initiation, frequency of sexual intercourse, unprotected sex and rural areas Targeted sexual initiation, number of partners, condom use, frequency of sexual activity

Background

In the United States, HIV AIDS initially emerged most extensively in the largely white, gay MSM (men who have sex with other men and do not identify as gay or bisexual) communities of New York City, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Overall, MSM account for 54 of the cumulative AIDS diagnoses since the start of the epidemic and are estimated to be currently acquiring 45 of incident cases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004, 2006c). However, HIV has long since penetrated non-white, gay MSM communities and is now characterized more by the race and ethnicity of those it has infected than by any single behavior. Although African Americans represent 13 of the U.S. population, they accounted for 51 of newly diagnosed cases of HIV in 2001-2004, resulting in rates 8.5 times higher than for whites. Also at disproportionate risk, Hispanics are infected with HIV at rates 3.3 times higher than for whites (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006a). The estimated rate of HIV...

InPrison Risk

Regardless of the efforts to prevent sexual activity and drug use inside our prisons and jails, sex and drugs (including intravenous drug paraphernalia) as well as tattooing occur every day in these institutions. Estimates of the percentage of the incarcerated population that engages in sexual activity range from 2 to 65 (Krebs, 2002 Weinbaum et al., 2005). Types of sexual interactions range from romantic, consensual relationships to violent acts of power domination and rape, and everything in-between. In 2005, there were 2.83 allegations of sexual violence reported to the department of corrections per every 1000 prisoners. More than half of these involved staff (Beck & Harrison, 2005). When including events that are officially reported and those that are not, studies have found that 3-28 of prisoners are sexually assaulted at least once while inside (Krebs & Simmons, 2002) and that 7-12 of male respondents report being raped an average of nine times while doing time (Robertson, 2003).

Wording Of Questions

If potentially embarrassing or offending questions are necessary, consider putting them at the end of the instrument or making them optional. For example, the FACT-G has a question about satisfaction with sex life, but precedes this with If you prefer not to answer it, please check this box and go to the next section.

Missing Data

Interpretation of results is difficult when there is much missing data, and it is best to take precautions to minimise the problems. For example, questions about sexual interest, ability or activity may cause problems. In some clinical trials these questions might be regarded as of little relevance, and it may be reasonable to anticipate similar low levels of sexual problems in both treatment arms. This raises the question of whether it is advisable to exclude these potentially embarrassing items so as to avoid compromising patient compliance over questionnaire completion. Fayers et al. (1997b) reported that in a wide range of UK MRC cancer trials, approximately 19 of patients left blank a question about (have you been bothered by) decreased sexual interest . Females were twice as likely as males to leave this item blank. Possible interpretations are that some patients found the question embarrassing, or that they did not have an active sexual interest before their illness and...

Hormones and Aging

Another hormone that greatly influences human behavior and development is human growth hormone (HGH). This hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) gland under the control of the hypothalamus. HGH production peaks during adolescence, corresponding to the growth spurt. While it is produced throughout life, it declines with age in all species studied to date. In humans, HGH production tends to drop quickly beginning in the thirties so that by age sixty, HGH production is only about 25 percent of what it was earlier in life, and it continues to decline until death. The decrease in HGH production with age has been tied to thinning of skin and wrinkle formation, muscle wasting, sleep problems, cognitive and mood changes, decreased cardiac and kidney function, lessening of sexual performance, and weakening ofbones, contributing to osteoporosis. Nutritional supplements including the amino acids arginine, lysine, and glutamine are being investigated as growth hormone...

Sexual History

The importance of taking an appropriate sexual history from travellers cannot be overemphasised. This poses problems in the busy practice, clinic or hospital setting but it is essential to include such enquiries as a matter of routine. A suitable excuse needs to be found to exclude parents, partners or friends who accompany the patient while this part of the history is taken. People go on holiday to have fun, and for many this includes new sexual experiences, often associated with high-risk partners. This is particularly true for young adults. In one British study, 74 of male migrant tourism workers in a popular coastal resort had sex with tourists, almost half with more than four tourists, and only 40 of respondents had used a condom (Ford and Inman, 1992). Teenagers are just as busy when visiting other European destinations, particularly those associated with the dance-music scene. In a recent study performed in Ibiza, over a third of 846 young adults attending music venues had...

Additional outcomes

Of the nine studies reporting data on knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, four measured increased knowledge of modes of HIV AIDS transmission. In China, study C (7) showed large, significant differences -measured both before and after the intervention - in knowledge of modes of transmission, including sexual intercourse (77 before versus 95 after), having multiple sexual partners (69 before versus 93 after) and sharing needles for drug use (67 before versus 95 after). Similarly large differences were found for rejecting incorrect modes of transmission, and all knowledge measures were significantly different from the control group. The Tsa Banana campaign in Botswana (study G) (11) showed mixed results on the item, sexually active people risk getting infected with HIV, with males showing significant improvements in knowledge (adjusted odds ratio 3.2) and females showing no significant improvement. In Guinea, study E (9) reported levels of knowledge of transmission of 90-96...

Example 115

Selection of dose levels for animal testing is constrained by two competing goals. On the one hand, doses are kept as low as possible to ensure that the toxicity of the chemical does not cause premature deaths. The MTD derived from subchronic tests is typically the highest dose used. Other doses are fractions of the MTD. In many animal studies the dose groups used are a control, 1 2 MTD, and MTD with each group consisting of 50 animals of each sex with both mice and rats, resulting in a minimum of 600 animals. The tests are run for two years and the animals are then sacrificed and examined. However, if dose levels are too low, it may be difficult to identify the level of response because of poor statistical resolution. Lowering the dose requires a corresponding increase in the numbers of animals required to provide a statistically adequate estimate of the response due to the chemical. A major factor driving the cost of a test is the number of animals used for the entire test....

The Problem

In contrast, as already indicated, some QoL items may present particular difficulties for example, the question concerning sexual interest on the RSCL. This question is frequently unanswered. One plausible assumption is that patients experiencing problems are likely to be more reticent concerning this question, and that therefore missing items occur more frequently when there are indeed sexual problems. Thus missing might imply very much a problem . Alternatively, for those patients who are no longer sexually active, failure to respond may imply not applicable . In either case imputation should take this into account, as simply ignoring the presence of missing scores for these patients can result in misleading conclusions about the severity of problems. Such data are classified as Not Missing At Random (NMAR), because the missing data depend on the value of the unobserved scores and so the missing data mechanism cannot be ignored.

Sexual function

Secondly, overall satisfaction with sex life and sexual function may change at different rates over time depending on the radiotherapeutic modality. It may well be that men receiving IGTPB recover at slower rates than those treated with 3D-CRT, since the mechanism of impotency may be neurovascular injury rather than solely microvascular angiopathy. In addition, the radiotherapeutic doses delivered over several months in palladium or iodine brachytherapy as opposed to 8 weeks in external beam potentially prolongs the tissue effect. Another factor is whether the selection of isotope and the actual delivered dose by postimplant dosimetry had any bearing on the rates of potency cited. This is particularly important since data indicate that the use of palladium and higher radiation doses may negatively affect sexual function.13 Recently, several studies have been published addressing sexual function and overall quality of sex life after radiation therapy for prostate cancer.14 Some of...

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by obsessive-compulsive features (counting calories, hoarding food), diminished sexual activity, rigid personality, strong need to control ones environment, social phobia (fear of eating in public). Anorexia nervosa commonly coexists with major depressive disorder.

Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B vaccine may be administered during pregnancy. Hepatitis B virus infection is a risk for short-term and long-term travelers who may be exposed to blood or body fluids. The risk is increased for travel to Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, the Amazon basin and parts of the Middle East. The main risk factors for a pregnant woman include working in a health care setting, being sexually active with a new partner, planning delivery overseas, or planning extended travel.

Leishmaniasis

Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries, but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by the sand fly (Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia spp). Occasional nonvector transmissions have also been reported, through blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, organ transplants and dog excrements, and sporadically outside endemic areas.

Discussion

The authors of the original papers that were commissioned for the meeting in Talloires in March 2004 that initiated the Steady, Ready, Go process were asked to give special consideration to young people who are most at risk of becoming infected with HIV. When the papers were reviewed during the meeting, participants recommended that a specific chapter be written focusing on these groups of young people. This is important for two reasons. First, interventions for young sex workers, men who have sex with men, and injecting drug users are likely to be key to decreasing the transmission of HIV in low-level and concentrated epidemics. Second, having the evidence of effectiveness for these interventions is important because they are usually surrounded by controversy, the behaviours that this group participates in are often illegal, and the groups themselves are marginalized and exposed to discrimination. This review set out to assess the level of evidence of effectiveness needed to...

Prior Abuse

Female inmates have a shockingly high incidence of being abused. Bureau of Justice statistics suggest that well over half of female prisoners were physically and or sexually abused, while only about 15 of male prisoners had been abused. These findings indicate that between 23 and 27 of female offenders were abused before the age of 18, about twice as high as the rate in the general female population (BJS, 1999a). Other studies put the percentage of female prisoners who have been abused even higher. A 1995 study reported that 75.1 of female prisoners had been physically abused during the year before their arrest. Sixty-eight percent claimed they had been forced to have sexual activity as adults. Forty-eight percent of female prisoners said they had been sexually abused under the age of 18 (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Among 14 to 18-year-old girls who are already in the criminal justice system, between 75 and 90 report having been abused. Abused and neglected girls and...

Hormonal Therapy

Patients with high-grade or metastatic prostate carcinoma are frequently medically or surgically castrated to inhibit the deleterious effects of testosterone. As a result, androgen deficiency can lead to a loss of libido and decreased sexual performance.102 Physicians have many options to induce androgen blockade, such as low-dose estrogens, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists, antiandrogens and orchiectomy. Migliari etal. showed that monotherapy with bicalutamide did not induce significant changes in nocturnal penile tumescence recordings or libido, sexual desire and frequency of sexual intercourse.103 This differs with studies on other antiandrogens, like medroxyprogesterone acetate and cypro-terone acetate, where the latter decreased sexual drive. This suggests that pure antiandrogen therapy does not impair sexual function.103,105 Schroder et al. reported that potency preservation with antiandrogen monotherapy using either flutamide or cyproterone acetate was not...

Risk Behavior

Excessive alcohol consumption and a high rate of extramarital sexual activity are common among certain groups of expatriates (Lange and McCune, 1989 Mac-nair, 1995 De Graaf et al., 1998a). In some cases these behaviors are related to peer pressure and expectations, while in other instances they are a consequence of stress, or an attempt to avoid unpleasant thoughts and feelings, or a result of loneliness and separation from the social support network (perhaps including the spouse). Boredom and a lack of opportunity for recreational activities may also be a factor. In many cases expatriates do not use condoms during sexual activity (Moore et al., 1995), increasing the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Ascariasis

Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminth infection of humans, with an estimated 1 billion cases worldwide. Transmission usually occurs from hand to mouth. Ova are ingested from a contaminated environment larva are released into stomach, penetrate the gut wall and enter the circulation, on reaching the lung, larva cross the alveoli and are transported to the trachea by coughing and muciliary function. They are swallowed and reach the small bowel, where they stay, developing into sexually active forms. Adult worms have an average lifespan of 1-2

Male Infertility

Physiologically, male fertility requires good erectile function spermatogenesis normal endocrine function (specifically testosterone and FSH) and ejaculation. In addition, sexual intercourse timed appropriately to ovulation is an important key to conception. Because of the anxiety and stress that is often associated with couple infertility, male patients often describe difficulty with erections. Obviously, if sexual intercourse is not occurring then conception is impossible This information must be addressed specifically with the patient as he may not volunteer it. Erectile dysfunction secondary to various disease states including diabetes and atherosclerosis must also be elucidated. Any previous history of genitourinary cancers or pelvic surgeries that may have impaired erectile function should also be addressed. the patient is unwilling, financially or psychologically, to undergo ART, other options such as donor sperm insemination or adoption should be discussed. Testosterone,...

Sexual Behavior

The sexual script for boys is frequently different from the sexual script for girls. As a result, boys and girls generally think differently about sex. This discrepancy can cause problems and confusion for adolescents as they struggle with their sexual identities. For boys, the focus of sexuality may be sexual conquest, to the point that young men who are nonexploitative or inexperienced may be labeled with negative terms such as sissy. Boys are more likely than girls to see intercourse as a way of establishing their maturity and of achieving social status. As a consequence, boys are more likely to have sex with someone who is a relative stranger, to have more sexual partners, and to disassociate sex from love and emotional intimacy. Adolescent girls are much more likely than adolescent boys to link sexual intercourse with love. The quality of the relationship between the girl and her partner is a very important factor. Most girls would agree that sexual intercourse is acceptable if...

Embryo Sexing

Due to the problems observed with the blastomere fixing procedure, a novel and more efficient method of spreading blastomeres was developed in mouse embryos (Coonen et al., 1994a) using HC1 and Tween 20 as the spreading solution. This method was successfully applied to whole human embryos (Coonen et al., 1994b) and single blastomeres (Harper et al., 1994). The spreading solution lyses the cell membrane and dissolves the cytoplasm, leaving the nuclei clear and dried onto the slide. A short pepsin digestion is then performed instead of the longer proteinase K and RNase steps. The use of directly labelled DNA probes has been possible, which reduces the time of the FISH procedure from seven to two hours (Harper et al., 1994). Most laboratories use three-colour FISH for PGD of sex with probes for

Miscellaneous

Another possible treatment modality for ovulatory DUB is an antifibrinolytic agent, such as epsilon aminocaproic acid. In particular, there is strong evidence that the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid is very effective, but unfortunately this agent is not generally available in the United States. Still another option is danazol, for example, 200 mg orally daily. Most patients taking such a dose continue to experience regular menses, and androgenic side effects may be a problem. Furthermore, barrier contraception is needed if the patient is sexually active.

The Forebrain

Right above the midbrain, in the center of the brain, lies the thalamus, which is the center of sensory processing. All incoming sensory information, except for the sense of smell, goes to the thalamus first before it is sent on to the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain. Anterior to and slightly below the thalamus is the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic activity is involved in numerous motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, temperature regulation, and aggression. Its activity occurs largely through its regulation of the pituitary gland, which is beneath the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland controls the release of hormones that circulate in the endocrine system.

Cyproterone Acetate

Disturbances was considerably worse than that of cyproterone acetate. In addition, in a small number of patients who were sexually active at the beginning of the trial, the same percentage remain sexually active on both arms, showing that loss of potency and libido is not inevitable with a steroidal androgen-

Potency rates

Several studies have demonstrated that younger patients have a greater chance of retaining their potency after radical prostatectomy.2'11'16'20'21 Younger patients typically have smaller tumor burdens, are more sexually active preoperatively and, therefore, are more likely to undergo a nerve-sparing

Urinary Tract Issues

Women are prone to urinary tract infections during travel. Infection can be caused by a number of factors, including dehydration, less frequent urination due to a lack of convenient toilets, fewer available facilities for hygiene, and an increase in sexual activity. Women of all

Oxytocin Agonists

Intravenously administered oxytocin for the induction of labour and may also have a role in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction, presumably based on the part oxytocin is believed to play in the regulation of male and female sexual activity. Selectivity for oxytocin over vasopressin V2 has been a problem with this series, but success was obtained with compound (59), which has an oxytocin agonist EC50 of 33 nM and a 25-fold selectivity versus vasopressin V2 118, 119 . Related compounds from this series have been claimed in a recent patent and are reported to be oxytocin agonists and vasopressin V1a antagonists 120, 121 .

Physical Changes

As the bodies of adolescents become more adult, their interest in sexual behavior increases sharply. They must learn the necessary behavior to satisfy that interest, and they must face the issue of a mature gender identity. This includes the expression of sexual needs and feelings and the acceptance or rejection of sex roles. The onset of dating and the beginning of physical intimacies with others can provoke frustration and anxiety. As this unfamiliar territory is explored, the adolescent is often very underinformed and overly self-conscious. Conflicting sexual values and messages are frequently encountered, accentuating the problem of integrating sexual drives with other aspects of the personality.

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